Scaffolds
March 20, 1995                    Volume 4                     Geneva,NY
Index:Xylem up..... | A leaf from the book | New Michigan State Apple Scouting Manual | Chem News | Biological Clock | Credits

COMING EVENTS

                                                     43F       50F
Current DD accumulations (Geneva 1/1-3/20):           99        46

Coming Events:                              Ranges:
Green fruitworm 1st catch                         41<43       9<69
Pear psylla adults active                          2<121      0<42
McIntosh at green tip                             24<161      4<74

XYLEM UP, PHLOEM DOWN

By:Art Agnello
Last week's preview of continuous days in the 70's almost made us think we were too late with this year's first issue of Scaffolds. But it's not too difficult to recall a recent mid-March when everyone was busy digging out of 3 ft of snow at this time, so perhaps the recurrence of a bit more winter weather is not entirely out of the question. On the assumption that most of us are at least subconsciously preparing for the imminent field season, this issue will mainly address the normal starting-up details, to get them over with before the first moth actually flies. As in the past, the form(s) in which you are reading this issue represents our best interpretation of your preference as to method of delivery, according to the re-subscription card you should have returned to us, and any specific requests you expressed last year. We can always alter this arrangement to suit your needs, IF you notify us.

To review, in addition to the paper copy mailed out every Tuesday morning, an electronic version of this newsletter is also available on Cornell Cooperative Extension's CENET (under the FRUIT menu, on the "Tree Fruit News" Bulletin Board). Or, we can send it to individual e- mail addresses in place of or in addition to a hard copy sent by post. If your e-mail system is so configured and you would prefer an attached file for quick downloading, rather than as the default long text message, please specify a Macintosh- or MS-DOS compatible version. If you just want to receive the electronic version but are currently getting the hard copy, let us know so we can save on some postage.

As always, we are happy to consider contributions (particularly from N.Y. sources) in the form of articles on topics in any of the fruit crop protection or crop production areas, as well as N.Y. field observations, trap data, etc. Keep in mind that we are able to incorporate nearly any graphics into the hard copy and WWW versions, including photographs that can be scanned; all that's needed is a little advance time. For the record, we generally do not send the mailed version of this newsletter to growers, homeowners, or other private individuals not having some fruit extension, commercial, university or governmental affiliation. This is not only for economic reasons, but also because of what might be called "turf" considerations regarding growers' relationships to their local Extension programs. (There are a few exceptions, mostly for people who were "grandfathered" in before this policy was instituted, and we prefer to keep this number low).

A LEAF FROM THE BOOK


This is always a good time to review some of the various fruit information sources currently available from Cornell University. First of all, the 1995 Pest Management Recommendations for Commercial Tree- Fruit Production (the "Recommends") has been available for a few weeks now, together with the 1995 Pest Management Recommendations for Small Fruit Crops, and our appreciation goes to Bernadine Aldwinckle in Communications Services at Geneva for providing continued improvements to the format of these documents. They can be obtained, for a fee, from your county Extension office, or alternatively from Media Services Resource Center-GP, Business & Technology Park, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850 (607-255-2080, 2090; FAX: 607-255-9946; E-mail: dist_cent@cce.cornell.edu). Also available from these same sources is a selection of reference materials, articles, bulletins, etc. best surveyed by obtaining a copy of the current Catalog of Cornell Cooperative Extension Publications (again, from Extension offices or the Resource Center). Of particular note are some selected references, which follow:

NEW MICHIGAN APPLE SCOUTING MANUAL

We recently received a notice announcing the publication of an "Apple Insect Scouting Manual" authored by James W. Johnson, Fruit Entomologist at Michigan State University, and Margaret Herr, a private consultant in SE Michigan with over ten years of consulting experience. The manual was funded in part by a grant from the Michigan Apple Research Committee. The press release describes it as a "hands-on scouting tool, to complement the insect biology references that are already published ... contains current insect monitoring technology, field test threshold information, and the Apple Pest Guide - a tool that relates insect biology and tree phenology to degree days throughout the season." Contact Jim Johnson (E-mail: johnsonj@msuces.canr.msu.edu) or Matt McCullom (Great Lakes Publishing, E-mail: mac82nd@aol.com ) if you have questions. All orders taken by Great Lakes Publishing (the same folks who publish the Great Lakes Fruit Grower News), P.O. Box 128, Sparta, Michigan 49345. 36 pp., laminated softcover, $10.00 + $3.00 s/h.

CHEM NEWS

By:Art Agnello

A quick rundown of some of the current developments regarding fruit pesticide changes, arrivals, and expectations based on what we know at this time:

BIOLOGICAL CLOCK

Determining Growing Degree Days (Without a Computer) (Dave Kain and Art Agnello)

Since some of those who receive this newsletter, and many of their clients (i.e., growers), do not have access to up-to-date computerized degree day information, we've decided to include in this issue charts showing daily degree day values, calculated by the Baskerville-Emin method, for a given set of maximum and minimum temperatures. There are two charts; one for base 43F and one for base 50F.

You will need to know the maximum and minimum temperatures for each day for which you want to calculate degree days. Select the appropriate chart for the base temperature that you want to use (We use base 43 for determining the time to sample for OBLR and STLM). Read down along the column on the left to find the minimum temperature for that day. Use a ruler or your finger to mark the row it's in. Then read across the row on the top to find the daily maximum temperature and down that column to where it intersects with the row containing the minimum, to find the degree day value.

Because of space limitations, only minimum temperatures from 10F to the base temperature are given. This is because, for all practical purposes, when the minimum temperature is above the base temperature, the Max/Min method of calculating degree days is as accurate as the Baskerville-Emin method. Therefore, when the MINIMUM temperature is GREATHER than or equal to the base temperature, degree days (base x) = average daily temperature minus base temperature.

For example, using 43F as the base, a minimum of 47 and a maximum 
   of 65 (F): 
   Degree days = [(65+47)  2] - 43, or 57 - 43 = 13 DD
                    [Average]  - base           = degree days
 
Conversely, maximum temperatures below the base are not given because if the MAXIMUM temperature is LESS than or equal to the base, 0 degree days accrue that day.

You can monitor daily maximum and minimum temperatures yourself with a (readily available) max/min thermometer (make sure to read it at the same time each day). Or, they can be obtained from local weather reports. If you would like historical information (e.g., January 1, 1995 to today) it may be obtained through a variety of means. Most central and complete would probably be the NOAA Regional Climate Center in your area (ours is the Northeast Regional Climate Center located on Cornell's Ithaca campus). For a nominal fee, they can provide clients up-to-date and historical data for a large number of stations throughout their region. Clients with computers, and either a modem or internet connection, can obtain an account (by calling NRCC user services) providing them direct access to data and information in the NRCC database through their CLIMOD system. At present there is no charge for this account. A 9-page brochure, entitled "NORTHEAST REGIONAL CLIMATE CENTER Program, Products and Services" is now available. The information provided in this brochure primarily describes the activities/products of the Northeast Regional Climate Center. However, locations, addresses, phone numbers, etc. for the other U.S. regional climate centers are included. The brochure can be obtained by contacting:

Northeast Regional Climate Center, 1123 Bradfield Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-1901 (Tel 607-255-1751; Fax 607- 255-2106; E-mail: nrcc@cornell.edu

Information about the NRCC and its products is also available on the World Wide Web communications network (You must still contact them directly to obtain data). Their URL = http://met-www.cit.cornell.edu

Other sources of historical data may include your local Cooperative Extension office, amatuer weather observers, or newspapers.

Baskerville-Emin Degree Days, BASE 43 degrees F

                                   MAX
MIN  44   45   46   47   48   49   50   51   52   53   54   55   56   57
10  0.1  0.2  0.4  0.6  0.8  1.0  1.3  1.5  1.8  2.1  2.4  2.7  3.0  3.4
11  0.1  0.2  0.4  0.6  0.8  1.0  1.3  1.6  1.8  2.1  2.4  2.7  3.1  3.4
12  0.1  0.2  0.4  0.6  0.8  1.0  1.3  1.6  1.9  2.2  2.5  2.8  3.1  3.4
13  0.1  0.2  0.4  0.6  0.8  1.1  1.3  1.6  1.9  2.2  2.5  2.8  3.1  3.5
14  0.1  0.2  0.4  0.6  0.8  1.1  1.3  1.6  1.9  2.2  2.5  2.8  3.2  3.5
15  0.1  0.2  0.4  0.6  0.8  1.1  1.4  1.6  1.9  2.2  2.6  2.9  3.2  3.6
16  0.1  0.2  0.4  0.6  0.9  1.1  1.4  1.7  2.0  2.3  2.6  2.9  3.3  3.6
17  0.1  0.2  0.4  0.6  0.9  1.1  1.4  1.7  2.0  2.3  2.6  3.0  3.3  3.7
18  0.1  0.2  0.4  0.6  0.9  1.1  1.4  1.7  2.0  2.3  2.7  3.0  3.4  3.7
19  0.1  0.2  0.4  0.7  0.9  1.2  1.4  1.7  2.1  2.4  2.7  3.1  3.4  3.8
20  0.1  0.2  0.4  0.7  0.9  1.2  1.5  1.8  2.1  2.4  2.8  3.1  3.5  3.8
21  0.1  0.2  0.4  0.7  0.9  1.2  1.5  1.8  2.1  2.5  2.8  3.1  3.5  3.9
22  0.1  0.3  0.5  0.7  1.0  1.2  1.5  1.8  2.2  2.5  2.8  3.2  3.6  3.9
23  0.1  0.3  0.5  0.7  1.0  1.3  1.6  1.9  2.2  2.5  2.9  3.3  3.6  4.0
24  0.1  0.3  0.5  0.7  1.0  1.3  1.6  1.9  2.2  2.6  2.9  3.3  3.7  4.1
25  0.1  0.3  0.5  0.7  1.0  1.3  1.6  2.0  2.3  2.6  3.0  3.4  3.8  4.1
26  0.1  0.3  0.5  0.8  1.0  1.3  1.7  2.0  2.3  2.7  3.1  3.4  3.8  4.2
27  0.1  0.3  0.5  0.8  1.1  1.4  1.7  2.0  2.4  2.8  3.1  3.5  3.9  4.3
28  0.1  0.3  0.5  0.8  1.1  1.4  1.7  2.1  2.4  2.8  3.2  3.6  4.0  4.4
29  0.1  0.3  0.5  0.8  1.1  1.4  1.8  2.1  2.5  2.9  3.3  3.7  4.1  4.5
30  0.1  0.3  0.6  0.8  1.2  1.5  1.8  2.2  2.6  2.9  3.3  3.7  4.1  4.6
31  0.1  0.3  0.6  0.9  1.2  1.5  1.9  2.2  2.6  3.0  3.4  3.8  4.2  4.7
32  0.1  0.3  0.6  0.9  1.2  1.6  1.9  2.3  2.7  3.1  3.5  3.9  4.3  4.8
33  0.1  0.4  0.6  0.9  1.3  1.6  2.0  2.4  2.8  3.2  3.6  4.0  4.4  4.9
34  0.1  0.4  0.7  1.0  1.3  1.7  2.1  2.5  2.9  3.3  3.7  4.1  4.6  5.0
35  0.1  0.4  0.7  1.0  1.4  1.8  2.1  2.5  3.0  3.4  3.8  4.2  4.7  5.1
36  0.2  0.4  0.7  1.1  1.4  1.8  2.2  2.6  3.1  3.5  3.9  4.4  4.8  5.3
37  0.2  0.4  0.8  1.1  1.5  1.9  2.3  2.8  3.2  3.6  4.1  4.5  5.0  5.4
38  0.2  0.5  0.8  1.2  1.6  2.0  2.4  2.9  3.3  3.8  4.2  4.7  5.2  5.6
39  0.2  0.5  0.9  1.3  1.7  2.1  2.6  3.0  3.5  3.9  4.4  4.9  5.3  5.8
40  0.2  0.6  1.0  1.4  1.8  2.3  2.7  3.2  3.7  4.1  4.6  5.1  5.6  6.0
41  0.3  0.6  1.1  1.5  2.0  2.4  2.9  3.4  3.9  4.4  4.8  5.3  5.8  6.3
42  0.3  0.8  1.2  1.7  2.2  2.7  3.2  3.6  4.1  4.6  5.1  5.6  6.1  6.6
43  0.5  1.0  1.5  2.0  2.5  3.0  3.5  4.0  4.5  5.0  5.5  6.0  6.5  7.0


Baskerville-Emin Degree Days, BASE 43 degrees F

MAX MIN 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 10 3.7 4.0 4.4 4.7 5.1 5.4 5.8 6.2 6.6 6.9 7.3 7.7 8.1 11 3.7 4.1 4.4 4.8 5.1 5.5 5.9 6.2 6.6 7.0 7.4 7.8 8.2 12 3.8 4.1 4.5 4.8 5.2 5.6 5.9 6.3 6.7 7.1 7.5 7.9 8.3 13 3.8 4.2 4.5 4.9 5.2 5.6 6.0 6.4 6.8 7.2 7.5 7.9 8.3 14 3.9 4.2 4.6 4.9 5.3 5.7 6.1 6.4 6.8 7.2 7.6 8.0 8.4 15 3.9 4.3 4.6 5.0 5.4 5.7 6.1 6.5 6.9 7.3 7.7 8.1 8.5 16 4.0 4.3 4.7 5.1 5.4 5.8 6.2 6.6 7.0 7.4 7.8 8.2 8.6 17 4.0 4.4 4.7 5.1 5.5 5.9 6.3 6.7 7.1 7.5 7.9 8.3 8.7 18 4.1 4.4 4.8 5.2 5.6 6.0 6.4 6.7 7.1 7.6 8.0 8.4 8.8 19 4.1 4.5 4.9 5.3 5.6 6.0 6.4 6.8 7.2 7.6 8.1 8.5 8.9 20 4.2 4.6 4.9 5.3 5.7 6.1 6.5 6.9 7.3 7.7 8.1 8.6 9.0 21 4.2 4.6 5.0 5.4 5.8 6.2 6.6 7.0 7.4 7.8 8.2 8.7 9.1 22 4.3 4.7 5.1 5.5 5.9 6.3 6.7 7.1 7.5 7.9 8.4 8.8 9.2 23 4.4 4.8 5.2 5.6 6.0 6.4 6.8 7.2 7.6 8.0 8.5 8.9 9.3 24 4.5 4.8 5.2 5.6 6.1 6.5 6.9 7.3 7.7 8.1 8.6 9.0 9.4 25 4.5 4.9 5.3 5.7 6.1 6.6 7.0 7.4 7.8 8.3 8.7 9.1 9.6 26 4.6 5.0 5.4 5.8 6.2 6.7 7.1 7.5 7.9 8.4 8.8 9.2 9.7 27 4.7 5.1 5.5 5.9 6.3 6.8 7.2 7.6 8.1 8.5 8.9 9.4 9.8 28 4.8 5.2 5.6 6.0 6.5 6.9 7.3 7.7 8.2 8.6 9.1 9.5 10.0 29 4.9 5.3 5.7 6.1 6.6 7.0 7.4 7.9 8.3 8.8 9.2 9.7 10.1 30 5.0 5.4 5.8 6.3 6.7 7.1 7.6 8.0 8.5 8.9 9.4 9.8 10.3 31 5.1 5.5 5.9 6.4 6.8 7.3 7.7 8.1 8.6 9.1 9.5 10.0 10.4 32 5.2 5.6 6.1 6.5 6.9 7.4 7.8 8.3 8.8 9.2 9.7 10.1 10.6 33 5.3 5.8 6.2 6.6 7.1 7.5 8.0 8.5 8.9 9.4 9.8 10.3 10.8 34 5.4 5.9 6.3 6.8 7.2 7.7 8.2 8.6 9.1 9.6 10.0 10.5 11.0 35 5.6 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.4 7.9 8.3 8.8 9.3 9.7 10.2 10.7 11.2 36 5.7 6.2 6.7 7.1 7.6 8.1 8.5 9.0 9.5 9.9 10.4 10.9 11.4 37 5.9 6.4 6.8 7.3 7.8 8.3 8.7 9.2 9.7 10.2 10.6 11.1 11.6 38 6.1 6.6 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.4 9.9 10.4 10.9 11.4 11.9 39 6.3 6.8 7.3 7.7 8.2 8.7 9.2 9.7 10.2 10.7 11.1 11.6 12.1 40 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 9.9 10.4 10.9 11.4 11.9 12.4 41 6.8 7.3 7.8 8.3 8.8 9.3 9.8 10.2 10.7 11.2 11.7 12.2 12.7 42 7.1 7.6 8.1 8.6 9.1 9.6 10.1 10.6 11.1 11.6 12.1 12.6 13.1 43 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5


Baskerville-Emin Degree Days, BASE 43 degrees F MAX MIN 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 10 8.5 8.9 9.3 9.7 10.1 10.5 10.9 11.3 11.7 12.2 12.6 13.0 11 8.6 9.0 9.4 9.8 10.2 10.6 11.0 11.4 11.8 12.3 12.7 13.1 12 8.7 9.1 9.5 9.9 10.3 10.7 11.1 11.5 11.9 12.4 12.8 13.2 13 8.7 9.1 9.6 10.0 10.4 10.8 11.2 11.6 12.1 12.5 12.9 13.3 14 8.8 9.2 9.6 10.1 10.5 10.9 11.3 11.7 12.2 12.6 13.0 13.4 15 8.9 9.3 9.7 10.2 10.6 11.0 11.4 11.8 12.3 12.7 13.1 13.6 16 9.0 9.4 9.8 10.3 10.7 11.1 11.5 12.0 12.4 12.8 13.2 13.7 17 9.1 9.5 9.9 10.4 10.8 11.2 11.6 12.1 12.5 12.9 13.4 13.8 18 9.2 9.6 10.0 10.5 10.9 11.3 11.8 12.2 12.6 13.1 13.5 13.9 19 9.3 9.7 10.2 10.6 11.0 11.4 11.9 12.3 12.7 13.2 13.6 14.1 20 9.4 9.8 10.3 10.7 11.1 11.6 12.0 12.4 12.9 13.3 13.8 14.2 21 9.5 9.9 10.4 10.8 11.2 11.7 12.1 12.6 13.0 13.5 13.9 14.3 22 9.6 10.1 10.5 10.9 11.4 11.8 12.3 12.7 13.1 13.6 14.0 14.5 23 9.7 10.2 10.6 11.1 11.5 11.9 12.4 12.8 13.3 13.7 14.2 14.6 24 9.9 10.3 10.7 11.2 11.6 12.1 12.5 13.0 13.4 13.9 14.3 14.8 25 10.0 10.4 10.9 11.3 11.8 12.2 12.7 13.1 13.6 14.0 14.5 14.9 26 10.1 10.6 11.0 11.5 11.9 12.4 12.8 13.3 13.7 14.2 14.7 15.1 27 10.3 10.7 11.2 11.6 12.1 12.5 13.0 13.4 13.9 14.4 14.8 15.3 28 10.4 10.9 11.3 11.8 12.2 12.7 13.1 13.6 14.1 14.5 15.0 15.5 29 10.6 11.0 11.5 11.9 12.4 12.9 13.3 13.8 14.2 14.7 15.2 15.6 30 10.7 11.2 11.6 12.1 12.6 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.4 14.9 15.4 15.8 31 10.9 11.3 11.8 12.3 12.7 13.2 13.7 14.1 14.6 15.1 15.6 16.0 32 11.1 11.5 12.0 12.5 12.9 13.4 13.9 14.3 14.8 15.3 15.8 16.2 33 11.2 11.7 12.2 12.7 13.1 13.6 14.1 14.6 15.0 15.5 16.0 16.5 34 11.4 11.9 12.4 12.9 13.3 13.8 14.3 14.8 15.2 15.7 16.2 16.7 35 11.6 12.1 12.6 13.1 13.6 14.0 14.5 15.0 15.5 16.0 16.4 16.9 36 11.9 12.3 12.8 13.3 13.8 14.3 14.8 15.2 15.7 16.2 16.7 17.2 37 12.1 12.6 13.1 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0 15.5 16.0 16.5 17.0 17.4 38 12.3 12.8 13.3 13.8 14.3 14.8 15.3 15.8 16.3 16.7 17.2 17.7 39 12.6 13.1 13.6 14.1 14.6 15.1 15.6 16.1 16.5 17.0 17.5 18.0 40 12.9 13.4 13.9 14.4 14.9 15.4 15.9 16.4 16.9 17.4 17.9 18.3 41 13.2 13.7 14.2 14.7 15.2 15.7 16.2 16.7 17.2 17.7 18.2 18.7 42 13.6 14.1 14.6 15.1 15.6 16.1 16.6 17.1 17.6 18.1 18.6 19.1 43 14.0 14.5 15.0 15.5 16.0 16.5 17.0 17.5 18.0 18.5 19.0 19.5


Baskerville-Emin Degree Days, BASE 43 degrees F MAX MIN 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 10 13.4 13.9 14.3 14.7 15.1 15.6 16.0 11 13.5 14.0 14.4 14.8 15.3 15.7 16.1 12 13.6 14.1 14.5 14.9 15.4 15.8 16.2 13 13.8 14.2 14.6 15.1 15.5 15.9 16.4 14 13.9 14.3 14.7 15.2 15.6 16.1 16.5 15 14.0 14.4 14.9 15.3 15.7 16.2 16.6 16 14.1 14.6 15.0 15.4 15.9 16.3 16.8 17 14.2 14.7 15.1 15.6 16.0 16.5 16.9 18 14.4 14.8 15.3 15.7 16.2 16.6 17.1 19 14.5 15.0 15.4 15.9 16.3 16.8 17.2 20 14.6 15.1 15.5 16.0 16.4 16.9 17.4 21 14.8 15.2 15.7 16.1 16.6 17.1 17.5 22 14.9 15.4 15.8 16.3 16.8 17.2 17.7 23 15.1 15.5 16.0 16.5 16.9 17.4 17.8 24 15.2 15.7 16.2 16.6 17.1 17.5 18.0 25 15.4 15.9 16.3 16.8 17.3 17.7 18.2 26 15.6 16.0 16.5 17.0 17.4 17.9 18.4 27 15.7 16.2 16.7 17.1 17.6 18.1 18.6 28 15.9 16.4 16.9 17.3 17.8 18.3 18.7 29 16.1 16.6 17.1 17.5 18.0 18.5 18.9 30 16.3 16.8 17.3 17.7 18.2 18.7 19.2 31 16.5 17.0 17.5 17.9 18.4 18.9 19.4 32 16.7 17.2 17.7 18.2 18.6 19.1 19.6 33 16.9 17.4 17.9 18.4 18.9 19.4 19.8 34 17.2 17.7 18.1 18.6 19.1 19.6 20.1 35 17.4 17.9 18.4 18.9 19.4 19.8 20.3 36 17.7 18.2 18.6 19.1 19.6 20.1 20.6 37 17.9 18.4 18.9 19.4 19.9 20.4 20.9 38 18.2 18.7 19.2 19.7 20.2 20.7 21.2 39 18.5 19.0 19.5 20.0 20.5 21.0 21.5 40 18.8 19.3 19.8 20.3 20.8 21.3 21.8 41 19.2 19.7 20.2 20.7 21.2 21.7 22.2 42 19.6 20.1 20.6 21.1 21.6 22.1 22.6 43 20.0 20.5 21.0 21.5 22.0 22.5 23.0


Baskerville-Emin Degree Days, Base 50 degrees F MAX MIN 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 10 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.2 1.4 1.7 1.9 2.2 2.5 2.8 11 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.2 1.4 1.7 2.0 2.2 2.5 2.8 12 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.7 2.0 2.3 2.6 2.9 13 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.2 1.5 1.7 2.0 2.3 2.6 2.9 14 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.5 1.7 2.0 2.3 2.6 2.9 15 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.3 2.6 3.0 16 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0 17 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0 18 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.3 1.6 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.1 19 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.3 1.6 1.9 2.2 2.5 2.8 3.1 20 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.1 1.3 1.6 1.9 2.2 2.5 2.8 3.1 21 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.1 1.3 1.6 1.9 2.2 2.5 2.8 3.2 22 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.1 1.4 1.6 1.9 2.2 2.6 2.9 3.2 23 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.9 1.1 1.4 1.7 2.0 2.3 2.6 2.9 3.3 24 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.9 1.1 1.4 1.7 2.0 2.3 2.6 3.0 3.3 25 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.9 1.1 1.4 1.7 2.0 2.3 2.7 3.0 3.4 26 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.7 0.9 1.2 1.4 1.7 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.1 3.4 27 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.7 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.8 3.1 3.5 28 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.7 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.5 2.8 3.1 3.5 29 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.2 2.5 2.8 3.2 3.6 30 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.3 1.6 1.9 2.2 2.5 2.9 3.3 3.6 31 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.3 1.6 1.9 2.2 2.6 2.9 3.3 3.7 32 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.3 1.6 2.0 2.3 2.6 3.0 3.4 3.8 33 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.8 1.0 1.3 1.7 2.0 2.3 2.7 3.1 3.4 3.8 34 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.8 1.1 1.4 1.7 2.0 2.4 2.8 3.1 3.5 3.9 35 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.8 1.1 1.4 1.7 2.1 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6 4.0 36 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.8 1.1 1.4 1.8 2.1 2.5 2.9 3.3 3.7 4.1 37 0.1 0.3 0.6 0.8 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.2 2.6 2.9 3.3 3.7 4.1 38 0.1 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.9 2.2 2.6 3.0 3.4 3.8 4.2 39 0.1 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.6 1.9 2.3 2.7 3.1 3.5 3.9 4.3 40 0.1 0.4 0.6 0.9 1.3 1.6 2.0 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6 4.0 4.4 41 0.1 0.4 0.7 1.0 1.3 1.7 2.1 2.5 2.9 3.3 3.7 4.1 4.6 42 0.1 0.4 0.7 1.0 1.4 1.8 2.1 2.5 3.0 3.4 3.8 4.2 4.7 43 0.2 0.4 0.7 1.1 1.4 1.8 2.2 2.6 3.1 3.5 3.9 4.4 4.8 44 0.2 0.4 0.8 1.1 1.5 1.9 2.3 2.8 3.2 3.6 4.1 4.5 5.0 45 0.2 0.5 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.4 2.9 3.3 3.8 4.2 4.7 5.2 46 0.2 0.5 0.9 1.3 1.7 2.1 2.6 3.0 3.5 3.9 4.4 4.9 5.3 47 0.2 0.6 1.0 1.4 1.8 2.3 2.7 3.2 3.7 4.1 4.6 5.1 5.6 48 0.3 0.6 1.1 1.5 2.0 2.4 2.9 3.4 3.9 4.4 4.8 5.3 5.8 49 0.3 0.8 1.2 1.7 2.2 2.7 3.2 3.6 4.1 4.6 5.1 5.6 6.1 50 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5


Baskerville-Emin Degree Days, Base 50 degrees F MAX MIN 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 10 3.1 3.4 3.7 4.1 4.4 4.7 5.1 5.4 5.8 6.1 6.5 6.9 7.2 11 3.1 3.5 3.8 4.1 4.4 4.8 5.1 5.5 5.8 6.2 6.6 6.9 7.3 12 3.2 3.5 3.8 4.2 4.5 4.8 5.2 5.5 5.9 6.3 6.6 7.0 7.4 13 3.2 3.5 3.9 4.2 4.5 4.9 5.2 5.6 6.0 6.3 6.7 7.1 7.4 14 3.2 3.6 3.9 4.2 4.6 4.9 5.3 5.6 6.0 6.4 6.7 7.1 7.5 15 3.3 3.6 3.9 4.3 4.6 5.0 5.3 5.7 6.1 6.4 6.8 7.2 7.6 16 3.3 3.6 4.0 4.3 4.7 5.0 5.4 5.8 6.1 6.5 6.9 7.3 7.6 17 3.4 3.7 4.0 4.4 4.7 5.1 5.4 5.8 6.2 6.6 6.9 7.3 7.7 18 3.4 3.7 4.1 4.4 4.8 5.1 5.5 5.9 6.2 6.6 7.0 7.4 7.8 19 3.4 3.8 4.1 4.5 4.8 5.2 5.6 5.9 6.3 6.7 7.1 7.5 7.9 20 3.5 3.8 4.2 4.5 4.9 5.2 5.6 6.0 6.4 6.8 7.2 7.5 7.9 21 3.5 3.9 4.2 4.6 4.9 5.3 5.7 6.1 6.4 6.8 7.2 7.6 8.0 22 3.6 3.9 4.3 4.6 5.0 5.4 5.7 6.1 6.5 6.9 7.3 7.7 8.1 23 3.6 4.0 4.3 4.7 5.1 5.4 5.8 6.2 6.6 7.0 7.4 7.8 8.2 24 3.7 4.0 4.4 4.7 5.1 5.5 5.9 6.3 6.7 7.1 7.5 7.9 8.3 25 3.7 4.1 4.4 4.8 5.2 5.6 6.0 6.4 6.7 7.1 7.6 8.0 8.4 26 3.8 4.1 4.5 4.9 5.3 5.6 6.0 6.4 6.8 7.2 7.6 8.1 8.5 27 3.8 4.2 4.6 4.9 5.3 5.7 6.1 6.5 6.9 7.3 7.7 8.1 8.6 28 3.9 4.2 4.6 5.0 5.4 5.8 6.2 6.6 7.0 7.4 7.8 8.2 8.7 29 3.9 4.3 4.7 5.1 5.5 5.9 6.3 6.7 7.1 7.5 7.9 8.4 8.8 30 4.0 4.4 4.8 5.2 5.6 6.0 6.4 6.8 7.2 7.6 8.0 8.5 8.9 31 4.1 4.5 4.8 5.2 5.6 6.1 6.5 6.9 7.3 7.7 8.1 8.6 9.0 32 4.1 4.5 4.9 5.3 5.7 6.1 6.6 7.0 7.4 7.8 8.3 8.7 9.1 33 4.2 4.6 5.0 5.4 5.8 6.2 6.7 7.1 7.5 7.9 8.4 8.8 9.2 34 4.3 4.7 5.1 5.5 5.9 6.3 6.8 7.2 7.6 8.1 8.5 8.9 9.4 35 4.4 4.8 5.2 5.6 6.0 6.5 6.9 7.3 7.7 8.2 8.6 9.1 9.5 36 4.5 4.9 5.3 5.7 6.1 6.6 7.0 7.4 7.9 8.3 8.8 9.2 9.7 37 4.6 5.0 5.4 5.8 6.3 6.7 7.1 7.6 8.0 8.5 8.9 9.4 9.8 38 4.7 5.1 5.5 5.9 6.4 6.8 7.3 7.7 8.1 8.6 9.1 9.5 10.0 39 4.8 5.2 5.6 6.1 6.5 6.9 7.4 7.8 8.3 8.8 9.2 9.7 10.1 40 4.9 5.3 5.8 6.2 6.6 7.1 7.5 8.0 8.5 8.9 9.4 9.8 10.3 41 5.0 5.4 5.9 6.3 6.8 7.2 7.7 8.2 8.6 9.1 9.6 10.0 10.5 42 5.1 5.6 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.4 7.9 8.3 8.8 9.3 9.7 10.2 10.7 43 5.3 5.7 6.2 6.7 7.1 7.6 8.1 8.5 9.0 9.5 9.9 10.4 10.9 44 5.4 5.9 6.4 6.8 7.3 7.8 8.3 8.7 9.2 9.7 10.2 10.6 11.1 45 5.6 6.1 6.6 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.4 9.9 10.4 10.9 11.4 46 5.8 6.3 6.8 7.3 7.7 8.2 8.7 9.2 9.7 10.2 10.7 11.1 11.6 47 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 9.9 10.4 10.9 11.4 11.9 48 6.3 6.8 7.3 7.8 8.3 8.8 9.3 9.8 10.2 10.7 11.2 11.7 12.2 49 6.6 7.1 7.6 8.1 8.6 9.1 9.6 10.1 10.6 11.1 11.6 12.1 12.6 50 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0


Baskerville-Emin degree days, Base 50 degrees F MAX MIN 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 10 7.6 8.0 8.4 8.8 9.1 9.5 9.9 10.3 10.7 11.1 11.5 11 7.7 8.1 8.4 8.8 9.2 9.6 10.0 10.4 10.8 11.2 11.6 12 7.7 8.1 8.5 8.9 9.3 9.7 10.1 10.5 10.9 11.3 11.7 13 7.8 8.2 8.6 9.0 9.4 9.8 10.2 10.6 11.0 11.4 11.8 14 7.9 8.3 8.7 9.1 9.4 9.8 10.2 10.7 11.1 11.5 11.9 15 8.0 8.3 8.7 9.1 9.5 9.9 10.3 10.7 11.1 11.6 12.0 16 8.0 8.4 8.8 9.2 9.6 10.0 10.4 10.8 11.2 11.7 12.1 17 8.1 8.5 8.9 9.3 9.7 10.1 10.5 10.9 11.3 11.7 12.2 18 8.2 8.6 9.0 9.4 9.8 10.2 10.6 11.0 11.4 11.8 12.3 19 8.3 8.7 9.1 9.5 9.9 10.3 10.7 11.1 11.5 11.9 12.4 20 8.3 8.7 9.1 9.6 10.0 10.4 10.8 11.2 11.6 12.1 12.5 21 8.4 8.8 9.2 9.6 10.1 10.5 10.9 11.3 11.7 12.2 12.6 22 8.5 8.9 9.3 9.7 10.2 10.6 11.0 11.4 11.8 12.3 12.7 23 8.6 9.0 9.4 9.8 10.3 10.7 11.1 11.5 12.0 12.4 12.8 24 8.7 9.1 9.5 9.9 10.4 10.8 11.2 11.6 12.1 12.5 12.9 25 8.8 9.2 9.6 10.0 10.5 10.9 11.3 11.8 12.2 12.6 13.1 26 8.9 9.3 9.7 10.2 10.6 11.0 11.4 11.9 12.3 12.7 13.2 27 9.0 9.4 9.8 10.3 10.7 11.1 11.6 12.0 12.4 12.9 13.3 28 9.1 9.5 9.9 10.4 10.8 11.2 11.7 12.1 12.6 13.0 13.5 29 9.2 9.6 10.1 10.5 10.9 11.4 11.8 12.3 12.7 13.1 13.6 30 9.3 9.7 10.2 10.6 11.1 11.5 11.9 12.4 12.8 13.3 13.7 31 9.4 9.9 10.3 10.7 11.2 11.6 12.1 12.5 13.0 13.4 13.9 32 9.6 10.0 10.4 10.9 11.3 11.8 12.2 12.7 13.1 13.6 14.0 33 9.7 10.1 10.6 11.0 11.5 11.9 12.4 12.8 13.3 13.7 14.2 34 9.8 10.3 10.7 11.2 11.6 12.1 12.5 13.0 13.4 13.9 14.4 35 10.0 10.4 10.9 11.3 11.8 12.2 12.7 13.1 13.6 14.1 14.5 36 10.1 10.6 11.0 11.5 11.9 12.4 12.9 13.3 13.8 14.2 14.7 37 10.3 10.7 11.2 11.6 12.1 12.6 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.4 14.9 38 10.4 10.9 11.3 11.8 12.3 12.7 13.2 13.7 14.1 14.6 15.1 39 10.6 11.1 11.5 12.0 12.5 12.9 13.4 13.9 14.3 14.8 15.3 40 10.8 11.2 11.7 12.2 12.7 13.1 13.6 14.1 14.6 15.0 15.5 41 11.0 11.4 11.9 12.4 12.9 13.3 13.8 14.3 14.8 15.2 15.7 42 11.2 11.6 12.1 12.6 13.1 13.6 14.0 14.5 15.0 15.5 16.0 43 11.4 11.9 12.3 12.8 13.3 13.8 14.3 14.8 15.2 15.7 16.2 44 11.6 12.1 12.6 13.1 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0 15.5 16.0 16.5 45 11.9 12.3 12.8 13.3 13.8 14.3 14.8 15.3 15.8 16.3 16.7 46 12.1 12.6 13.1 13.6 14.1 14.6 15.1 15.6 16.1 16.5 17.0 47 12.4 12.9 13.4 13.9 14.4 14.9 15.4 15.9 16.4 16.9 17.4 48 12.7 13.2 13.7 14.2 14.7 15.2 15.7 16.2 16.7 17.2 17.7 49 13.1 13.6 14.1 14.6 15.1 15.6 16.1 16.6 17.1 17.6 18.1 50 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0 15.5 16.0 16.5 17.0 17.5 18.0 18.5


Baskerville-Emin degree days, Base 50 degrees F MAX MIN 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 10 11.9 12.3 12.7 13.1 13.6 14.0 14.4 14.8 15.2 11 12.0 12.4 12.8 13.2 13.7 14.1 14.5 14.9 15.3 12 12.1 12.5 12.9 13.3 13.8 14.2 14.6 15.0 15.4 13 12.2 12.6 13.0 13.4 13.9 14.3 14.7 15.1 15.5 14 12.3 12.7 13.1 13.5 14.0 14.4 14.8 15.2 15.7 15 12.4 12.8 13.2 13.6 14.1 14.5 14.9 15.3 15.8 16 12.5 12.9 13.3 13.7 14.2 14.6 15.0 15.5 15.9 17 12.6 13.0 13.4 13.9 14.3 14.7 15.1 15.6 16.0 18 12.7 13.1 13.5 14.0 14.4 14.8 15.3 15.7 16.1 19 12.8 13.2 13.6 14.1 14.5 14.9 15.4 15.8 16.2 20 12.9 13.3 13.8 14.2 14.6 15.1 15.5 15.9 16.4 21 13.0 13.4 13.9 14.3 14.7 15.2 15.6 16.1 16.5 22 13.1 13.6 14.0 14.4 14.9 15.3 15.7 16.2 16.6 23 13.2 13.7 14.1 14.6 15.0 15.4 15.9 16.3 16.8 24 13.4 13.8 14.2 14.7 15.1 15.6 16.0 16.5 16.9 25 13.5 13.9 14.4 14.8 15.3 15.7 16.2 16.6 17.1 26 13.6 14.1 14.5 15.0 15.4 15.9 16.3 16.8 17.2 27 13.8 14.2 14.6 15.1 15.5 16.0 16.4 16.9 17.4 28 13.9 14.3 14.8 15.2 15.7 16.1 16.6 17.1 17.5 29 14.0 14.5 14.9 15.4 15.8 16.3 16.8 17.2 17.7 30 14.2 14.6 15.1 15.5 16.0 16.5 16.9 17.4 17.8 31 14.3 14.8 15.2 15.7 16.2 16.6 17.1 17.5 18.0 32 14.5 14.9 15.4 15.9 16.3 16.8 17.3 17.7 18.2 33 14.7 15.1 15.6 16.0 16.5 17.0 17.4 17.9 18.4 34 14.8 15.3 15.7 16.2 16.7 17.1 17.6 18.1 18.6 35 15.0 15.5 15.9 16.4 16.9 17.3 17.8 18.3 18.7 36 15.2 15.6 16.1 16.6 17.1 17.5 18.0 18.5 18.9 37 15.4 15.8 16.3 16.8 17.3 17.7 18.2 18.7 19.2 38 15.6 16.0 16.5 17.0 17.5 17.9 18.4 18.9 19.4 39 15.8 16.2 16.7 17.2 17.7 18.2 18.6 19.1 19.6 40 16.0 16.5 16.9 17.4 17.9 18.4 18.9 19.4 19.8 41 16.2 16.7 17.2 17.7 18.1 18.6 19.1 19.6 20.1 42 16.4 16.9 17.4 17.9 18.4 18.9 19.4 19.8 20.3 43 16.7 17.2 17.7 18.2 18.6 19.1 19.6 20.1 20.6 44 17.0 17.4 17.9 18.4 18.9 19.4 19.9 20.4 20.9 45 17.2 17.7 18.2 18.7 19.2 19.7 20.2 20.7 21.2 46 17.5 18.0 18.5 19.0 19.5 20.0 20.5 21.0 21.5 47 17.9 18.3 18.8 19.3 19.8 20.3 20.8 21.3 21.8 48 18.2 18.7 19.2 19.7 20.2 20.7 21.2 21.7 22.2 49 18.6 19.1 19.6 20.1 20.6 21.1 21.6 22.1 22.6 50 19.0 19.5 20.0 20.5 21.0 21.5 22.0 22.5 23.0 If MIN is greater than or equal to BASE, then DD = AVG TEMP minus BASE If MAX is less than or equal to BASE, then DD = 0


Scaffolds is published weekly from March to September by Cornell University -- NYS Agricultural Experiment Station (Geneva), and Ithaca -- with the assistance of Cornell Cooperative Extension. New York field reports welcomed. Send submissions by 3 p.m. Monday to:

Scaffolds Fruit Journal Editors: A. Agnello, D. Kain Dept. of Entomology, NYSAES Geneva, NY 14456-0462 Phone: 315-787-2341 FAX: 315-787-2326 E-mail: art_agnello@cornell.edu

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