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Insects | Credits


Volume 7, No. 26                                                 September 14, 1998


COMING EVENTS

COMING EVENTS
                                                    43°F      50°F
Current DD accumulations (Geneva 1/1-9/14):         3582      2477
                    (Geneva 1997 1/1-9/14):         3023      2026
                (Geneva "Normal" 1/1-9/14):         3235      2328

Coming Events:                              Ranges:
Apple maggot flight subsides                    2764-3656  1904-2573
Codling moth 2nd flight subsides                2782-3693  1796-2635                  
Lesser appleworm 2nd flight subsides            2775-3466  2002-2460
Obliquebanded leafroller 2nd flight subsides    2809-3656  1930-2573
Oriental fruit moth 3rd flight subsides         2987-3522  2018-2377
San Jose scale 2nd flight subsides              2494-3257  1662-2302
Spotted tentiform leafminer 3rd flight subsides 3235-3471  2228-2472


TRAP CATCHES (Number/trap/day)
Geneva:     
                                  8/20   8/24  8/31    9/8   9/14
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer        352    107  73.3    7.9   24.8
Redbanded Leafroller               0.5    0.1   0.3      0      0
Oriental Fruit Moth (apple)        5.5    2.8   4.3    4.6    4.3
Lesser Appleworm                   3.0    1.5   0.7    4.3    6.7
Codling Moth                       2.2    1.4   6.4    0.7    0.2
San Jose Scale                     1.3    0.6   2.9    0.4    1.0
American Plum Borer                0.3    0.9   0.4   0.06      0
Lesser Peachtree Borer             0.3    0.4   0.9   0.06      0
Obliquebanded Leafroller           0.3      0     0    0.1      0
Apple Maggot                       0.1      0     0   0.04      0

Highland (Dick Straub, Peter Jentsch):
                                   8/3   8/10   8/25   8/31
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer       25.9   19.6   11.3   15.3
Redbanded Leafroller                 0    0.4    3.6    4.3
Oriental Fruit Moth                0.4    0.4      0    0.1
Lesser Appleworm                   0.4    0.5    0.9    0.4
Codling Moth                       8.3    0.9    1.0    0.1
Obliquebanded Leafroller           0.1    0.1      0      0
Variegated Leafroller              0.7    1.1    1.0    0.5
Tufted apple budmoth               0.1    1.2    1.1    0.7
Fruittree Leafroller                 0      0      0      0
Sparganothis Fruitworm             0.4    0.5    1.6    1.7
Apple Maggot                      0.09    0.2    0.3   0.14


Insects

NOT YOUR STANDARD DEVIATION

by Dave Kain
Entomology, Geneva

Some of the most frequent comments and questions directed our way over the course of the season during a given year have to do with "how we're doing" on pest and tree development in comparison with last year, or with a "normal" year. I'm sure it comes as no surprise to anyone that this season got off to a roaring start with highs in the 80's recorded in March. Most years those big early-season accumulations of degree days tend to disapperar over the course of the season. This year, however, as has been noted in Scaffolds, we were about 10-14 days ahead of normal the entire season. Following are comparative listings of some of the pest events that occured this season (in Geneva) with calendar and degree-day normals. The values and dates are given +/- one standard deviation; i.e., events should occur within the stated range approximately 7 years out of 10. An asterisk (*) signifies that a record was set or tied. Datewise, many records for early occurrence were set this season. Howver, degree day predictions were pretty much on the money, providing a good example of the value of using degree days, over date, to predict pest events.


                                DATE            DEGREE DAYS (BASE 43°F)
                       ______________________   ______________________
EVENT                  Normal (+/-days)  1998    Normal (+/-DD)  1998

APPLE MAGGOT 
   1st catch            28-Jun  (+/-8)  22-Jun   1352 (+/-169)   1380
   Peak                  5-Aug (+/-14)  14-Aug   2395 (+/-219)   2843
   Subsiding             4-Sep  (+/-9)   8-Sep   3109 (+/-299)   3466

AMERICAN PLUM BORER
   1st catch            18-May  (+/-7)   7-May    424 (+/-110)    453
   1st flight peak       3-Jun  (+/-6)  29-May    710 (+/-148)    900
   1st flight subsides  29-Jun  (+/-7)  22-Jun   1367 (+/-214)   1380
   2nd flight start     11-Jul  (+/-4)   2-Jul*  1615 (+/-245)   1665
   2nd flight peak      27-Jul  (+/-6)  27-Jul   2177 (+/-223)   2341
   2nd flight subsides  14-Sep  (+/-8)   8-Sep   3397 (+/-242)   3466

CODLING MOTH 
   1st catch            19-May  (+/-8)   7-May    483 (+/-104)   453
   1st flight peak       4-Jun (+/-11)  29-May    799 (+/-190)   900
   2nd flight start     18-Jul (+/-15)  25-Jun*  1875 (+/-345)  1471
   2nd flight peak       8-Aug (+/-13)  25-Jun*  2449 (+/-406)  1471*
   2nd flight subsides   9-Sep (+/-14)   3-Aug*  3269 (+/-352)  2518*

GREEN FRUITWORM

   1st catch             4-Apr  (+/-9)   2-Apr     85 (+/-35)    173
   Peak                 14-Apr (+/-11)   2-Apr    141 (+/-55)    173
   Subsides              7-May (+/-11)   4-May    346 (+/-111)   400

LESSER APPLEWORM

   1st catch            11-May  (+/-9)   4-May    394 (+/-155)   400
   1st flight peak      23-May  (+/-7)  18-May    581 (+/-173)   673
   1st flight subsides  20-Jun  (+/-9)  22-Jun   1174 (+/-243)  1380
   2nd flight starts    10-Jul (+/-13)  13-Jul   1626 (+/-393)  1931
   2nd flight peak       9-Sep (+/-14)  14-Aug*  3111 (+/-180)  2843*

LESSER PEACHTREE BORER
 
   1st catch            26-May  (+/-9)   7-May*   579 (+/-150)   453
   Flight peak          28-Jun (+/-19)  26-May*  1325 (+/-474)   829
   Flight subsides       9-Sep  (+/-7)           3129 (+/-224)     

MULLEIN PLANT BUG

   1st hatch            12-May  (+/-9)  29-Apr*   368  (+/-53)   322
   90% hatch            26-May  (+/-7)  12-May*   560  (+/-75)   532

OBLIQUEBANDED LEAFROLLER

   1st catch            11-Jun  (+/-5)  29-May*   921  (+/-87)   900
   1st flight peak      20-Jun  (+/-9)  29-May*  1150 (+/-193)   900
   2nd flight begins     7-Aug (+/-10)   6-Aug   2501 (+/-189)  2610
   2nd flight peak      21-Aug (+/-12)  24-Aug   2875 (+/-173)  2742
 
ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH

   1st catch             1-May  (+/-8)  13-Apr*   293  (+/-95)   199
   1st flight peak      14-May (+/-11)  30-Apr*   426  (+/-96)   334
   2nd flight begins     1-Jul  (+/-6)  29-Jun   1437 (+/-155)  1588
   2nd flight peak       9-Jul (+/-11)  29-Jun   1765 (+/-404)  1588
   3rd flight begins    10-Aug  (+/-9)  30-Jul   2533 (+/-245)  2428
   3rd flight peak      24-Aug (+/-16)  14-Aug   2890 (+/-309)  2843

PEACHTREE BORER

   1st catch            16-Jun (+/-11)   9-Jun   1030 (+/-285)  1065
   Flight peak           6-Jul (+/-20)  25-Jun   1546 (+/-495)  1471
   Flight subsides      23-Aug (+/-13)   6-Aug*  2812 (+/-307)  2610

REDBANDED LEAFROLLER

   1st catch            18-Apr  (+/-7)   2-Apr    181  (+/-84)   173
   1st flight peak       4-May  (+/-9)   4-May    307  (+/-83)   400
   2nd flight begins     2-Jul  (+/-6)  25-Jun   1481 (+/-224)  1471
   2nd flight peak      13-Jul  (+/-7)   6-Jul*  1775 (+/-289)  1758
   2nd flight subsides   4-Aug (+/-12)   6-Aug   2375 (+/-264)  2610
   3rd flight begins    20-Aug (+/-11)  10-Aug   2773 (+/-173)  2742

SAN JOSE SCALE - adult males

   1st catch            17-May  (+/-8)  11-May    481 (+/-115)   520
   1st flight peak      31-May  (+/-7)  18-May*   672  (+/-50)   673
   2nd flight start     14-Jul (+/-11)  25-Jun*  1676 (+/-177)  1471
   2nd flight peak       8-Aug (+/-10)  30-Jul   2303 (+/-234)  2428
         
SPOTTED TENTIFORM LEAFMINER

   1st catch            19-Apr  (+/-7)   2-Apr*   175  (+/-65)   173
   1st flight peak       7-May  (+/-7)   4-May    335  (+/-86)   400
   2nd flight begins    15-Jun  (+/-7)  11-Jun   1067 (+/-124)  1105
   2nd flight peak       8-Jul (+/-11)  18-Jun   1630 (+/-246)  1266*
   3rd flight begins     7-Aug  (+/-7)   3-Aug   2510 (+/-170)  2518
   3rd flight peak      22-Aug  (+/-9)  17-Aug   2861 (+/-207)  2932



                               DATE           DEGREE DAYS (BASE 43°F)
CROP                   ______________________   _______________________
PHENOLOGY              Normal (+/-days)  1998    Normal (+/-DD)  1998

APPLE (MCINTOSH) 
   Green tip            11-Apr  (+/-6)  30-Mar*   113  (+/-39)   112
   Half-inch green      21-Apr  (+/-8)   6-Apr*   173  (+/-27)   178
   Tight cluster        27-Apr  (+/-7)  16-Apr*   230  (+/-21)   227
   Pink                  4-May  (+/-7)  27-Apr    300  (+/-30)   318
   Bloom                10-May  (+/-7)   4-May    387  (+/-52)   400
   Petal fall           18-May  (+/-7)  11-May*   496  (+/-46)   520

PEAR (BARTLETT) 
   Bud burst            22-Apr  (+/-7)   6-Apr*   166  (+/-49)   178
   Green cluster         1-May  (+/-7)  16-Apr*   241  (+/-29)   227
   White bud             5-May  (+/-8)  23-Apr    300  (+/-47)   291
   Bloom                 8-May  (+/-8)  27-Apr    350  (+/-51)   318
   Petal fall           16-May  (+/-8)   7-May    443  (+/-57)   453

SWEET CHERRY (WINDSOR) 
   Bud burst            22-Apr  (+/-9)   2-Apr*   173  (+/-26)   173
   White bud            30-Apr  (+/-7)  13-Apr*   220  (+/-28)   199
   Bloom                 5-May  (+/-7)  20-Apr*   267  (+/-33)   266
   Petal fall           13-May  (+/-6)   4-May*   382  (+/-52)   400
   Fruit set            17-May  (+/-6)   7-May*   444  (+/-47)   453

TART CHERRY (MONTMORENCY) 
   Bud burst            27-Apr  (+/-7)  16-Apr    213  (+/-41)   227
   White bud             7-May  (+/-8)  20-Apr*   278  (+/-22)   266
   Bloom                11-May  (+/-6)  27-Apr*   360  (+/-52)   318
   Petal fall           19-May  (+/-6)  11-May*   468  (+/-56)	 520
   Fruit set            26-May  (+/-7)  15-May*   561  (+/-56)   590


Scaffolds is published weekly from March to September by Cornell University - NYS Agricultural Experiment Station (Geneva), and Ithaca - with the assistance of Cornell Cooperative Extension. New York field reports welcomed. Send submissions by 3 p.m. Monday to:

Scaffolds Fruit Journal

NOTE: Every effort has been made to provide correct, complete and up-to-date pesticide recommendations. Nevertheless, changes in pesticide regulations occur constantly, and human errors are possible. These recommendations are not a substitute for pesticide labelling. Please read the label before applying any pesticide.


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Photographs courtesy of New York State Integrated Pest Management Program