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June 17, 2002 Volume 11 No.14 Update on Pest Management and Crop Development

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Table of Contents:
UPCOMING PEST EVENTS
PHEROMONE TRAP CATCHES
PEST FOCUS

INSECTS
     New York orchard radar pest predictions
     Insect developmental model status
     Apple maggot monitoring and control

CHEM NEWS
      Actara 24(c)

 

Scaffolds is published weekly from March to September by Cornell University -- NYS Agricultural Experiment Station (Geneva), and Ithaca -- with the assistance of Cornell Cooperative Extension.

New York field reports welcomed. Send submissions by 3 p.m. Monday to:

Scaffolds Fruit Journal

Editors: A. Agnello, D. Kain

Dept. of Entomology, NYSAES

Geneva, NY 14456-0462

Phone: 315-787-2341 FAX: 315-787-2326

 

Scaffolds 2002 index

Upcoming Pest Events

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects | Chem News

 

 Current DD accumulations
43°F
50°F
(Geneva 1/1-6/10):

1003

595

(Geneva 1/1-6/10/2001):

1065

655

(Geneva "Normal"):

1008

630

(Highland 1/1-6/10):

1318

798

 
Coming Events: Ranges:  

Apple maggot 1st catch

1045-2057

629-1297

Cherry fruit fly 1st catch

650-1500

368-961

Codling moth 1st flight peak

547-1326

307-824

Dogwood borer 1st catch

798-1295

456-812

Lesser appleworm 1st flight subsides

818-1548

444-999

Obliquebanded leafroller 1st flight peak

869-1548

506-987

Obliquebanded leafroller summer larvae hatch

1076-1513

630-980

Pear psylla 2nd brood hatch

992-1200

609-763

San Jose scale 1st flight subsides

768-1096

434-656

San Jose scale 1st gen. crawlers present

987-1247

569-784

Spotted tentiform leafminer 2nd flight begins

795-1379

449-880


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Trap Catches

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects | Chem News

 

TRAP CATCHES (Number/trap/day)

Geneva        
 

6/7

6/10

6/13

6/17

Redbanded Leafroller

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

0.8

0.5

1.5

0.8

Oriental Fruit Moth

0.5

0.8

0.3

0.0

Lesser Appleworm

3.8

1.2

2.3

0.8

Codling Moth

15.3

10.5

10.0

2.4

San Jose Scale

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.0*

American Plum Borer

0.9

0.8

0.3

0.3

Lesser Peachtree Borer

1.4

5.2

3.2

0.6

Peachtree Borer

0.0

0.0

0.2*

0.0

Dogwood Borer

-

0.0

0.0

0.0

Pandemis Leafroller

0.0

0.2*

0.3

0.0

Obliquebanded Leafroller

0.0

0.5*

1.5

0.5

Highland (Dick Straub, Peter Jentsch):

       
 

5/28

6/3

6/10

6/17

Redbanded Leafroller

1.2

0.0

0.0

0.2

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

1.3

1.0

28.6*

57.1

Oriental Fruit Moth

0.3

0.3

0.1

0.0

Codling Moth

1.3

1.3

1.4

0.9

Lesser Appleworm

7.8

5.0

1.5

1.1

Tufted Apple Budmoth

0.1*

0.6

0.1

0.1

Variegated Leafroller

0.3*

0.8

0.6

1.9

Obliquebanded Leafroller

0.0

0.5*

2.4

0.9

* = 1st catch

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Pest Focus

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects | Chem News

 

Geneva: 1st San Jose Scale adults caught in traps.
1st Peachtree Borer caught 6/13.
1st catch of Pandemis Leafroller and Obliquebanded Leafroller 6/10. DD (base 43°F) since then = 181.

Highland: 2nd flight of Spotted Tentiform Leafminer at peak.
White Apple, Rose, and Potato Leafhopper adults abundant on apple.
Aphid populations building with Rosy Apple Aphid fruit and foliar damage becoming apparent.
High numbers of Pear Psylla adults and hardshells on pear terminal growth.Obliquebanded Leafroller summer larvae beginning to hatch. OBLR 1st flight began 6/3. DD (base 43°F) since then = 358.


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Insects

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects | Chem News

 

ORCHARD RADAR DIGEST

Geneva Predictions:

Roundheaded Appletree Borer
Peak egglaying period roughly: June 29 to July 13.

Codling Moth
Codling moth development as of June 17: 1st generation adult emergence at 70% and 1st generation egg hatch at 16%.
Key CM management dates: 1st gen 3% CM hatch: June 11 (= first spray date where two sprays are needed to control 1st generation CM; 2nd spray is roughly June 25). 1st gen 20% CM egg hatch: June 20 (= single spray date where one spray is needed to control 1st gen CM).

Obliquebanded Leafroller
1st generation OBLR flight, first trap catch: June 11.
If using B.t. insecticide, optimum date to begin 2 to 4 weekly low-rate applications for small OBLR larvae is roughly: June 27

San Jose Scale
1st generation SJS crawlers appear: June 21.

Highland Predictions:

Roundheaded Appletree Borer
Peak emergence: June 09.
Peak egglaying period roughly: June 24 to July 08.

Codling Moth
Codling moth development as of June 17:
1st gen adult emergence at 85% and 1st gen egg hatch at 40%
Key codling moth management dates:
1st generation 3% CM egg hatch: June 06 (= first spray date where two sprays needed to control 1st generation codling moth,
2nd spray roughly June 20). 1st gen 20% CM egg hatch: June 13 (= single spray date where one spray needed to control 1st gen CM).

Obliquebanded Leafroller
1st generation OBLR flight, first trap catch: June 07.
If using B.t. insecticide, optimum date to begin 2 to 4 weekly low-rate applications for small OBLR larvae is roughly: June 23.

San Jose Scale
1st generation SJS crawlers appear: June 15.

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MODEL BUILDING

Plum Curculio. The spray cutoff for this pest is 340 DD (base 50°F) past petal fall. Numbers as of today, June 17, follow:

  • Geneva (May 13 PF estimate) 397
  • Highland (May 8 PF estimate) - 422
  • Lafayette (May 20 PF estimate) - 323
  • Lyndonville (May 20 PF estimate) - 299
  • North Appleton/Niagara Co. (May 20 PF estimate) - 274
  • Plattsburgh (May 28 PF estimate) - 191
  • Saratoga/Capital District (May 13 PF estimate) - 327
  • Sodus (May 20 PF estimate) - 306

Oriental Fruit Moth. In Niagara Co., using May 6 as the biofix for first flight, the 341 DD (base 45°F) accumulation puts us at approximately 98% first brood larval hatch. Growers should have applied their second application of a pyrethroid for this insect (plus curc).

Codling Moth. With 250 DD (base 50°F) as a first spray date, we currently have:

  • Geneva (1st catch on May 23) - 334
  • Highland (1st catch on May 13) - 406
  • Lafayette (1st catch on May 31) - 213
  • Lyndonville (1st catch on May 29) - 246
  • North Appleton/Niagara Co. (1st catch on May 29) - 241
  • Plattsburgh (1st catch on June 3) - 114
  • Saratoga/Capital District (1st catch on May 22) - 327
  • Sodus (1st catch on May 28) - 260

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FLY IN YOUR SOUP

(Art Agnello & Harvey Reissig, Entomology, Geneva)

 

Monitoring

Once again, it is nearly time to expect the first appearance of apple maggot (AM) flies in volunteer apple stands and abandoned orchards, particularly in eastern N.Y.; western N.Y. could be about a week later if this were a normal season, and the less said about that the better. Crop scouts and consultants have been using traps to monitor AM populations for a long time, but this tactic, useful as it is, nevertheless is not recommended in all cases. Some orchards have such high or such low AM populations that monitoring for them is a waste of time; that is, sprays are needed predictably every season in some blocks, and on a calendar basis; conversely, they are rarely needed at all in other blocks. However, most commercial N.Y. orchards have moderate or variable pressure from this pest, and monitoring to determine when damaging numbers of them are present can reduce the number of sprays used in the summer with no decrease in fruit quality.

Sticky yellow panels have been in use for over 30 years, and can be very helpful in determining when AM flies are present. These insects emerge from their hibernation sites in the soil from mid-June to early July in New York, and spend the first 7-10 days of their adult life feeding on substances such as aphid honeydew until they are sexually mature. Because honeydew is most likely to be found on foliage, and because the flies see the yellow panel as a "super leaf", they are naturally attracted to it during this early adult stage. A few of these panels hung in an orchard can serve as an early warning device for growers if there is a likely AM emergence site nearby.

Many flies pass this period outside of the orchard, however, and then begin searching for fruit only when they are ready to mate and lay eggs. That means that this advance warning doesn't always have a chance to take place -- the catch of a single (sexually mature) fly then indicates a spray is necessary immediately to adequately protect the fruit. This can translate into an undesirable risk if the traps are not being checked daily, something that is not always possible during a busy summer.

To regain this time advantage, researchers developed newer traps that have the form of a "super apple" -- large, round, deep red, and sometimes with the smell of a ripe apple -- in an attempt to catch that first AM fly in the orchard. Because this kind of trap is so much more efficient at detecting AM flies when they are still at relatively low levels in the orchard, the traps can usually be checked twice a week to allow a one- or two-day response period (before spraying) after a catch is recorded, without incurring any risk to the fruit. In fact, research done in Geneva over a number of years indicates that some of these traps work so well, it is possible to use a higher threshold than the old "one fly and spray" guidelines recommended for the panel traps. Specifically, it has been found that sphere-type traps baited with a lure that emits apple volatiles attract AM flies so efficiently that an insecticide cover spray is not required until a threshold of 5 flies per trap is reached.

The recommended practice is to hang three volatile-baited sphere traps in a 10- to 15-acre orchard, on the outside row facing the most probable direction of AM migration (south, or else towards woods or abandoned apple trees). Then, periodically check the traps to get a total number of flies caught; divide this by 3 to get the average catch per trap, and spray when the result is 5 or more. Be sure you know how to distinguish AM flies from others that will be collected by the inviting-looking sphere. There are good photos for identifying the adults on the Apple Maggot IPM Fact Sheet (No. 8). In home apple plantings, these traps can be used to "trap out" local populations of AM flies by attracting any adult female in the tree's vicinity to the sticky surface of the red sphere before it can lay eggs in the fruit. Research done in Massachusetts suggests that this strategy will protect the fruit if one trap is used for every 100-150 apples normally produced by the tree (i.e., a maximum of three to four traps per tree in most cases), a density that makes this strategy fairly impractical on the commercial level.

A variety of traps and lures are currently available from commercial suppliers; among them: permanent sphere traps made of wood or stiff plastic, disposable sphere traps made of flexible plastic, and sphere-plus-panel ("Ladd") traps. The disposable traps are cheaper than the others, of course, but only last one season. Ladd traps are very effective at catching flies, but are harder to keep clean, and performed no better than any other sphere trap in our field tests. Brush-on stickum is available to facilitate trap setup in the orchard. Apple volatile lures are available for use in combination with any of these traps. These tools are available from a number of orchard pest monitoring suppliers, among them:

• Gempler's Inc., 100 Countryside Dr., PO Box 328, Belleville, WI 53508; 608-424-1544, Fax, 608-424-1555

• Great Lakes IPM, 10220 Church Rd. NE, Vestaburg, MI 48891; 800-235-0285, Fax 989-268-5311

• Harmony Farm Supply, 3244 Gravenstein Hwy, No. B, Sebastopol, CA 95472; 707-823-9125, Fax 707-823-1734

• Ladd Research Industries Inc., 83 Holly Court, Williston, VT 05495; 800-451-3406, Fax 802-660-8859

• Olson Products Inc., PO Box 1043, Medina, OH 44258; 330-723-3210, Fax 330-723-9977

• Scenturion Inc., P.O. Box 585, Clinton, WA 98236; 360-341-3989, Fax 360-341-3242

By preparing now for the apple maggot season, you can simplify the decisions required to get your apples through the summer in good shape for harvest.

Efficacy Trials

A number of new materials were evaluated during the 2001 season for the control of severe apple maggot populations. A western NY apple orchard that has been in organic production for several years was selected for use in this trial because high levels of apple maggot and internal Lepidoptera damage were observed in fruit harvested during the previous season. Sprays were applied dilute to runoff with a hand gun sprayer (450 psi) on either a weekly or bi-weekly basis depending on the material used; the exception was a Spintor-volatile bait mixture that was applied with a MeterJet spray gun connected to a CO2 backpack sprayer at 40 psi. All applications were started several days after the first flies were captured on monitoring traps in the orchard on 6 Jul and continued on 12 Jul, 19 Jul, 26 Jul, 1 Aug, 9 Aug. 18 Aug and 21 Aug. Treatments were replicated four times and included an untreated check on single 'Cortland' trees and were arranged in a RCB design. Treatments were separated by unsprayed buffer trees within each row. Red volatile-baited sphere traps were hung in each of the check treatments, as well as in one tree, two rows to the west of the test rows. Traps were checked on a weekly basis and cumulative counts were recorded throughout the season. Fruit was harvested on 29 Aug. Damage from AM as well as internal Lepidoptera was taken upon fruit inspection.

Guthion 50WP (1.5 lb. form/A), Actara 25WP (1.4 oz form/A), Calypso 4F (3.0 oz form/A) and Avaunt 30WG (5.8 oz form/A) were applied on a bi-weekly schedule. Surround WP (50 lbs. form/A), Aza-Direct EC (32.0 oz form/A), Spintor 2SC (7.5 oz form/A) and Spinosad Volatile Bait (32 ml form/tree) were applied each week throughout the season. The Spinosad Volatile Bait was applied with the metered sprayer in 8.0 ml aliquots. One aliquot was applied to each of the 4 directional quadrants of the outside of the tree canopy.

AM and internal Lepidoptera pressure in the test orchard was extremely high as indicated by the damage levels found in the untreated check plots (35.1 and 20.1%, respectively) and by high trap catches of flies throughout the season. The grower standard of Guthion gave excellent control of both pests with 0.4% AM and internal Lepidoptera damage. The weekly application of Surround also provided excellent control of AM damage (0.0%). The exact mode of action of this material against AM is not known. However, the coverage of kaolin reduces visual stimuli, and may affect the ability of the flies to recognize and orient to apples. Also, the buildup of clay on the apple may act as a deterrent to females attempting to oviposit. Surround was also quite effective in controlling damage from internal Lepidoptera (3.5%). The other organically approved material in this test, Aza-Direct, was not effective in reducing AM damage (42.0%), but did significantly reduce damage from internal Lepidoptera (6.9%). Avaunt, Actara, Spintor, and the Spintor bait all were relatively ineffective in preventing apple maggot damage (18-40%). However, Avaunt and Spintor were quite effective against internal Lepidoptera (2.9 and 1.1%, respectively). Actara also significantly reduced damage from internal Lepidoptera (6.9%), although it was not as effective as Avaunt and Spintor. Calypso was the only non-OP material that controlled both AM (2.5%) and internal Lepidoptera (2.0%), although it was not as effective against leps as the Guthion standard.

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Chem News

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects | Chem News

 

ONE SHOE OFF, ONE SHOE ON

After a significant amount of back-and-forth negotiations between the NYS DEC and Syngenta, Actara 25WDG has finally been granted a FIFRA Section 24(c) Special Local Need label for use on pome fruit (apples and pears) in NY. Actara has shown efficacy and is labeled for the control of plum curculio, rosy apple and green aphids, tarnished plant bug, European apple sawfly, Comstock mealybug, and mullein plant bug. Although this has been a much-anticipated registration by the fruit industry in this state, the delay in this decision has effectively carried us past the recommended use timing of pink to petal fall, and the NY label carries the further restriction of one application per season, which serves to render the product's efficacy to essentially half of its optimum potential. Efforts are under way to address this label inadequacy, although no remedy should be expected this season. Actara has a 12-hr REI and a 35-day PHI.

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________________________________________________________________________

This material is based upon work supported by Smith Lever funds from the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Scaffolds is published weekly from March to September by Cornell University -- NYS Agricultural Experiment Station (Geneva), and Ithaca -- with the assistance of Cornell Cooperative Extension. New York field reports welcomed. Send submissions by 3 p.m. Monday to:

Scaffolds Fruit Journal
Editors: A. Agnello, D. Kain
Dept. of Entomology, NYSAES
P.O. Box 462
Geneva, NY 14456-0462

Phone: 315-787-2341 FAX: 315-787-2326

E-mail: ama4@cornell.edu

Online at <http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ent/scaffolds/>

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