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July 22, 2002 Volume 11 No. 19 Update on Pest Management and Crop Development

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Table of Contents:
UPCOMING PEST EVENTS
PHEROMONE TRAP CATCHES
PEST FOCUS

INSECTS
     New York orchard radar pest predictions
     Summer insect considerations

GENERAL INFO
     Cornell Fruit Field Day and N.Y. Fruit Pest Control Field Day

 

Scaffolds is published weekly from March to September by Cornell University -- NYS Agricultural Experiment Station (Geneva), and Ithaca -- with the assistance of Cornell Cooperative Extension.

New York field reports welcomed. Send submissions by 3 p.m. Monday to:

Scaffolds Fruit Journal

Editors: A. Agnello, D. Kain

Dept. of Entomology, NYSAES

Geneva, NY 14456-0462

Phone: 315-787-2341 FAX: 315-787-2326

 

Scaffolds 2002 index

Upcoming Pest Events

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects | General Info

 

 Current DD accumulations
43°F
50°F
(Geneva 1/1-7/22):

2016

1353

(Geneva 1/1-7/22/2001):

1950

1298

(Geneva "Normal"):

1913

1308

(Highland 1/1-7/22):

2416

1652

 
Coming Events: Ranges:  

Apple maggot 1st oviposition punctures

1566-2200

1001-1575

Apple maggot flight peak

2033-2843

1387-1953

American plum borer 2nd flight peak

1648-2688

1037-1840

Comstock mealybug 1st flight subsides

1668-2245

1101-1450

Codling moth 2nd flight begins

1355-2302

864-1549

San Jose scale 2nd flight peak

1934-2591

1271-1874

STLM 2nd flight subsides

1773-2514

1148-1818


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Trap Catches

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects | General Info

 

TRAP CATCHES (Number/trap/day)

Geneva        
 

7/11

7/15

7/18

7/22

Redbanded Leafroller

3.0

1.0

1.2

1.3

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

87.8

27.9

23.2

20.5

Oriental Fruit Moth

2.0

1.3

1.3

0.6

Lesser Appleworm

6.3

30.0

12.0

9.5

Codling Moth

3.8

1.0

1.2

4.4

San Jose Scale

0.0

0.0

0.8*

3.8

American Plum Borer

0.3

0.0

1.0

0.5

Lesser Peachtree Borer

2.0

1.9

2.7

0.5

Peachtree Borer

0.8

1.0

1.5

1.8

Dogwood Borer

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.3

Pandemis Leafroller

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Obliquebanded Leafroller

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

Apple maggot

0.0

0.0

0.3

0.0

Highland (Dick Straub, Peter Jentsch):

       
 

7/1

7/5

7/15

7/22

Redbanded Leafroller

4.9

4.5

7.4

4.3

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

32.7

161

68.3

42.4

Oriental Fruit Moth

0.1

0.9

1.9

1.6

Codling Moth

1.1

2.3

0.6

2.2

Lesser Appleworm

0.3

1.3

1.3

1.9

Tufted Apple Budmoth

0.2

0.0

0.1

0.0

Variegated Leafroller

1.7

0.3

0.0

0.0

Obliquebanded Leafroller

0.7

1.2

1.5

0.1

Apple Maggot

0.1*

0.0

0.1

0.1

Sparganothis fruitworm

-

0.6*

0.4

0.4

Fruittree leafroller

-

-

0.0

0.1*

Dogwood borer

-

2.0

0.8

1.3

* = 1st catch

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Pest Focus

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects | General Info

 

Geneva: Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 2nd flight coming to an end; began 6/24. DD (base 43°F) since then = 867. (Begin sampling sap-feeding mines at 690 DD).

San Jose Scale 2nd flight beginning.

American Plum Borer 2nd flight under way.

 

Highland:Potato and Rose Leafhopper adults present, nymph numbers below threshold.

European Red Mite and Twospotted Spider Mite populations building.

Obliquebanded Leafroller 1st flight coming to an end.


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Insects

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects | General Info

 

ORCHARD RADAR DIGEST

Geneva Predictions:

Roundheaded Appletree Borer
Peak hatch roughly: July 12 to July 28

Dogwood Borer
First DWB egg hatch roughly: June 29. Peak hatch roughly: July 31

Codling Moth
CM development as of July 22: 2nd generation adult emergence at 15% and 2nd generation egg hatch at 2%. Key management dates: 2nd generation 3% CM egg hatch: July 30 (= first spray date where two sprays needed to control 2nd generation codling moth, 2nd spray is 2-3 weeks later). 2nd generation 20% CM egg hatch: August 09 (= single spray date where one spray needed to control 2nd generation codling moth).

Oriental Fruit Moth
2nd generation OFM flight, first trap catch: July 05
Optimum 2nd generation - first treatment date, if needed: July 14
Optimum 2nd generation - second treatment date, if needed: July 21

Redbanded Leafroller
2nd RBLR flight, first trap catch: July 02
Peak catch and approximate start of egg hatch: July 13

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
Optimum first sample date for 2nd generation STLM sapfeeding mines:
July 17 (late enough that sap-feeding mines for much of population are visible, but early enough that transition to less vulnerable tissue-feeding stage is just beginning). Second optimized sample date for 2nd generation STLM sapfeeding mines, if needed: July 23. Third optimized sample date for 2nd generation STLM sapfeeding mines, if needed: August 03.

White Apple Leafhopper
2nd generation WAL found on apple foliage: August 06.

Highland Predictions:

Roundheaded Appletree Borer
Peak hatch roughly: July 09 to July 24.

Dogwood Borer
Peak hatch roughly: July 26

Codling Moth
CM development as of July 22: 2nd generation adult emergence at 36% and 2nd generation egg hatch at 7%. Key management dates: 2nd generation 3% CM egg hatch: July 24 (= first spray date where two sprays needed to control 2nd generation codling moth, 2nd spray is 2-3 weeks later). 2nd generation 20% CM egg hatch: August 01,  Thursday (= single spray date where one spray needed to control 2nd generation codling moth).

Oriental Fruit Moth
Optimum 2nd generation - second treatment date, if needed: July 10

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
Third optimized sample date for 2nd generation STLM sapfeeding mines, if needed: July 21.

White Apple Leafhopper
2nd generation WAL found on apple foliage: July 30.

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SUMMER SALAD

(Art Agnello, Entomology, Geneva)

 

Hot and dry weather tends to encourage arthropod pests, so here's a brief overview of some of the pickins in the various orchard crops right now.

Oriental Fruit Moth

The 2nd brood flight of this peach and apple pest started some 7-10 days ago in most WNY sites, and the dates for peak flight are all over the place, but in general, we are now somewhat past the 6-day post-peak flight date for beginning the second round of sprays in peaches. We recommend Asana in two applications, spaced 14 days apart. If you haven't begun treating for this generation of OFM, this week is still not too late to start. Shoot-flagging injury from the first brood larvae is evident in the western county peach orchards by now, but those orchards relying on pheromone mating disruption seem to be holding their own. Also, a little attention to orchard weed management now can help minimize later season catfacing injury from tarnished plant bugs and their kin.

Woolly Apple Aphid

We have been noticing infestations of this nuisance pest in apple orchards for some time now. The woolly apple aphid (WAA), Eriosoma lanigerum, colonizes both aboveground parts of the apple tree and the roots, and commonly overwinters on the roots. In the spring, nymphs crawl up on apple trees from the roots to initiate aerial colonies. Most nymphs are born alive to unmated females on apple trees during the summer. Colonies initially build up on the inside of the canopy on sites such as wounds or pruning scars and later become numerous in the outer portion of the tree canopy, usually during late July to early August. Their presence now can serve as an indication of potential trouble spots later on.

Aerial colonies occur most frequently on succulent tissue such as the current season's growth, water sprouts, unhealed pruning wounds, or cankers. Heavy infestations cause honeydew and sooty mold on the fruit and galls on the plant parts. Severe root infestations can stunt or kill young trees but usually do not damage mature trees. Large numbers of colonies on trees may leave sooty mold on the fruit, which annoys pickers because red sticky residues from crushed WAA colonies may accumulate on their hands and clothing.

Water sprouts, pruning wounds, and scars on the inside of the tree canopy should be examined for WAA nymphs, and new growth around the outside of the canopy should be examined for WAA colonies. No economic threshold has been determined for treatment of WAA. Aphelinus mali, a tiny wasp, frequently parasitizes WAA but is very susceptible to insecticides (particularly pyrethroids) and thus does not provide adequate control in regularly sprayed commercial orchards. Different rootstocks vary in their susceptibility to WAA. Resistant rootstocks such as MM.106, MM.111, and Robusta are the only means of controlling underground infestations of WAA on apple roots; M.9 rootstock is very susceptible. WAA is difficult to control with insecticides because of its waxy outer covering and tendency to form dense colonies that are impenetrable to sprays. This insect is resistant to many commonly used materials, but insecticides that are effective include Diazinon and Thiodan.

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

The 2nd brood flight of STLM is pretty much over now, but it will be followed very closely by the 3rd, and of greater importance, its larvae are entering the stage of growth that makes them worthy of concern and timely assessment. The injury caused by the 2nd and 3rd generations is identical to that caused by the 1st, but second-generation injury is most damaging to the tree. Third-generation STLM is usually not a problem if the 2nd brood was controlled properly. Proper timing is essential for both the assessment of STLM densities and control, if required. Sampling for sap-feeding mines should be done at approximately 690 degree-days (base 43°F) after the start of the flight of the second generation. This flight began on June 24 in Geneva (which puts the DD tally at 867). Sampling guidelines can be found in the Recommends at: http://www.nysipm.cornell.edu/publications/apple.man/STLM_Sum.GIF. A decision regarding the third generation is generally not required unless the density of the second brood exceeded two mines per leaf. In recent years, an average of only 8% of sampled orchards have required a treatment for second-generation STLM.

Several insecticides are effective against this pest, including Provado, Vydate, Lannate, Danitol, Asana, and Actara. All of these products except for Provado and Actara are detrimental to predatory mites. Depending on the product chosen, application can be made anytime from initial egg deposition until larvae enter the tissue-feeding stages. Sampling is, of course, recommended before any spray is applied. If Provado is chosen, the manufacturer recommends aiming for the period 10-14 days after the flight starts. Unfortunately, if mines haven't yet begun to show up, this approach requires that you predict the need for a treatment based on either moth numbers or past field history, neither of which has been shown to be a very reliable indicator of actual pressure. According to our experience with this material, waiting until the appearance of early sap-feeding mines will give a better picture of problem blocks, and is still timely enough to effectively manage economic populations.

& Co.

Apple maggot catches have not been terribly high yet, although they did seem to start up somewhat earlier than normal in our statewide research blocks. If you aren't monitoring in specific orchards and haven't yet applied a protective spray against AM (and aren't using SpinTor for OBLR), prudence would suggest a bit of attention to this insect. Growers on a SpinTor program should be somewhere between the first and second spray of this material for leafrollers, which will provide protection against moderate AM pressure.

Very few orchards we have seen are in trouble from European red mites so far, but this kind of weather can boost twospotted mite levels in a hurry. Inspect your leaves using the 5 mite/leaf form on p. 66 of the Recommends, but be aware that two-spot populations increase more quickly than ERM, so be conservative in your interpretations. We don't yet have Acramite in N.Y., and Pyramite works better against red mites, so we would counsel Vendex for problem twospotted mite infestations.

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General Info

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects | General Info

 

FIELD DAYS NEAR AND FAR

1) The Cornell 2002 Fruit Field Day will take place in and around Orleans Co. on Thursday, August 1, from 8:15 a.m.-4:30 p.m. During the tour, two new sweet cherries, 'BlackGold' and 'WhiteGold', will be released by stone fruit breeder Bob Andersen. The two cherries are the first of four new cherry varieties and two new plum varieties that Andersen expects to release within the next six months. Other topics covered by Cornell researchers and fruit extension educators and consultants during the tour will include new rootstocks, producing big 'Gala' apples, thinning trial results using new thinners, strategies for preventing apple russet, planting systems for apples and peaches, new insecticides, mating disruption strategies, on-farm propagation of trees, promising new apple varieties, storage tips, on-farm equipment demonstrations, and more. The event is sponsored by Cornell University and the New York State Horticultural Society.

The tour starts at the LaMont Fruit Farms, on Stillwater Road, in the town of Carlton, NY, at 8:30 a.m. A link to the complete schedule and a tour map is available on the Cornell Fruit home page at http://www.cornellfruit.com. Pre-register by July 25, by contacting Kim Hazel at 585-589-5561 or Mary Durham at 315-331-8415. Lunch will be provided. NYS DEC Recertification credits will be available. Bring your applicator ID card.

2) Further down the road, it's not too early to mark your calendar for the annual N.Y. Fruit Pest Control Field Day, which will take place during Labor Day week on Sept. 4 and 5, as dictated by tradition. As usual, the Hudson Valley installment will take place on the first day, and then we shift to Geneva for the western NY perspective on the second day. Activities will commence in Highland on Wednesday, the 4th, with registration, coffee, etc., at the Hudson Valley Laboratory, 8:30 am. The tour will proceed to the orchards to view plots and preliminary data from field trials involving new fungicides, miticides, and insecticides on apples. On Thursday, the 5th, Geneva participants will register starting at 8:30 in the lobby of Barton Lab, after which we will view and discuss results from field trials on tree fruits and grapes. It is anticipated that the tour of field plots will be completed by noon. Save the dates.


 

________________________________________________________________________

This material is based upon work supported by Smith Lever funds from the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Scaffolds is published weekly from March to September by Cornell University -- NYS Agricultural Experiment Station (Geneva), and Ithaca -- with the assistance of Cornell Cooperative Extension. New York field reports welcomed. Send submissions by 3 p.m. Monday to:

Scaffolds Fruit Journal
Editors: A. Agnello, D. Kain
Dept. of Entomology, NYSAES
P.O. Box 462
Geneva, NY 14456-0462

Phone: 315-787-2341 FAX: 315-787-2326

E-mail: ama4@cornell.edu

Online at <http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ent/scaffolds/>

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