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August 26, 2002 Volume 11 No. 24 Update on Pest Management and Crop Development

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Table of Contents:
UPCOMING PEST EVENTS
PHEROMONE TRAP CATCHES

INSECTS
     New York orchard radar pest predictions
     Borer control considerations

 

Scaffolds is published weekly from March to September by Cornell University -- NYS Agricultural Experiment Station (Geneva), and Ithaca -- with the assistance of Cornell Cooperative Extension.

New York field reports welcomed. Send submissions by 3 p.m. Monday to:

Scaffolds Fruit Journal

Editors: A. Agnello, D. Kain

Dept. of Entomology, NYSAES

Geneva, NY 14456-0462

Phone: 315-787-2341 FAX: 315-787-2326

 

Scaffolds 2002 index

Upcoming Pest Events

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Insects

 

 Current DD accumulations
43°F
50°F
(Geneva 1/1-8/26):

3045

2139

(Geneva 1/1-8/26/2001):

2970

2074

(Geneva "Normal"):

2809

1974

 
Coming Events: Ranges:  

Codling moth 2nd flight subsides

2841-3698

1907-2640

American plum borer 2nd flight subsides

2841-3698

1907-2640

Lesser appleworm 2nd flight subsides

2775-3466

2002-2460

Lesser peachtree borer flilght subsides

2782-3474

1796-2513

Obliquebanded leafroller 2nd flight peak

2482-3267

1616-2231

Oriental fruit moth 3rd flight subsides

2987-3522

2018-2377

Peachtree borer flight subsides

2230-3255

1497-2309

San Jose scale 2nd flight subsides

2494-3582

1662-2477

Spotted tentiform leafminer 3rd flight subsides

3235-3471

2228-2472

Apple maggot flight subsides

2764-3656

1904-2573


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Trap Catches

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Insects

 

TRAP CATCHES (Number/trap/day)

Geneva        
 

8/15

8/19

8/22

8/26

Redbanded Leafroller

0.5

0.0

0.2

0.3

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

608

202

54.5

28.0

Oriental Fruit Moth

3.7

5.8

1.8

1.6

Lesser Appleworm

5.3

10.6

15.2

23.5

Codling Moth

2.3

3.8

3.3

4.4

San Jose Scale

7.2

3.3

1.2

1.3

American Plum Borer

1.5

0.3

0.3

0.3

Lesser Peachtree Borer

0.8

2.3

0.5

0.9

Peachtree Borer

0.2

2.5

2.3

1.1

Obliquebanded Leafroller

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

Apple Maggot

0.0

0.04

0.0

0.0

Highland (Dick Straub, Peter Jentsch):

       
 

7/29

8/5

8/12

8/20

Redbanded Leafroller

0.8

0.9

1.4

4.2

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

57.4

35.6

38.3

40.1

Oriental Fruit Moth

0.9

0.9

0.4

0.2

Codling Moth

3.3

2.9

1.5

1.2

Lesser Appleworm

2.4

0.6

0.7

2.5

Tufted Apple Budmoth

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.0

Variegated Leafroller

0.5

0.6

0.9

0.6

Obliquebanded Leafroller

0.6

0.6

0.3

0.3

Apple Maggot

0.4

0.1

0.0

0.2

Sparganothis fruitworm

0.3

0.3

0.8

1.9

Fruittree leafroller

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Dogwood borer

0.6

0.6

0.1

0.0

* = 1st catch

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Insects

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Insects

 

ORCHARD RADAR DIGEST

Geneva Predictions:

Codling Moth
CM development as of August 26: 2nd generation adult emergence at 100% and 2nd generation egg hatch at 89%.

Highland Predictions:

Codling Moth
CM development as of August 26: 2nd generation adult emergence at 100% and 2nd generation egg hatch at 98%.

 

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FALL BORER CONTROL CONSIDERATIONS

(Dave Kain and Art Agnello, Entomology, Geneva)

 

There is increasing concern throughout the Northeast about damage done to apple trees by borers. The species of primary concern is dogwood borer, but American plum borer can be prevalent in western New York apple orchards that are close to tart cherry and peach orchards. While we do not yet fully understand the effects these borers have on dwarf trees we do know that they reduce vigor and can, in time, completely girdle and kill trees.

Over the last three growing seasons we have tested a number of insecticides against these borers. Lorsban is very effective for this use and we would strongly urge growers to take advantage of it where needed. We're also looking at some other insecticides this season but we won't be able to report on the results until control is evaluated in October.

Our tests so far have shown that borers can be controlled season-long by applying Lorsban at various times in the spring and summer (see Table 1). Fall also may be a good time to control dogwood borer. Results from this season indicate that Lorsban applied last year postharvest (my sprays went on in October 2001) controlled at least the overwintering generation, and possibly this season's generation. (Results from an evaluation conducted August 8 showed no signs of infestation, but there wasn't much in the check either. It may have been too early to detect much frass produced by this season's larvae.) Lorsban works when applied in the Fall because it infiltrates burrknot tissue and kills larvae concealed within. It is also very persistent in wood so it may continue to work into the next season against larvae that hatch in late-June. Fall application may offer growers a more convenient alternative for borer control.

Table 1. Efficacy of insecticides and white paint against dogwood borer infesting apple 2000, 2001.

Treatment/Formulation Rate
(g AI/379 liters)
Application dates % actively infested
(±SE)
Mean
larvae/ tree
(±SE)
2000
Wafler     28 June 11 Oct. 11 Oct.
Lorsban 50W 680.4 g 22-May 1.3a (±0.9) 5.3a (±2.6) 0a
    22-May +17-July 4.0a (±1.6) 2.7a (±1.9) 0.03a (±0.02)
    17-July 24.7b (±3.5) 1.3a (±1.3) 0a
    Untreated 40.0c (±4.0) 66.7b (±5.5) 0.72b (±0.10)
Fowler            
Lorsban 50W 340.2 g 17-May 5.0a (±4.0) 0a 0a
    17-May + 7-July 7.5a (±4.0) 0a 0a
    7-July 32.5b (±7.5) 5.0a (±3.5) 0a
    Untreated 30.0b (±7.3) 35.0b (±7.6) 0.33b (±0.10)
2001   27 June 11 Sept. 27 June 11 Sept.
Lorsban 4EC 680.4 g 24-Apr 6.7a (±6.7) 6.7a (±4.6) 0.03a (±0.03) 0.07a (±0.05)
Lorsban 4EC +paint 680.4 g,33% v/v 24-Apr 13.3a (±8.8) 3.3a (±3.3) 0.17ab (±0.08) 0.03a (±0.03)
Lorsban 4EC 680.4 g 5-May 16.7a (±3.3) 13.3ab (±6.3) 0.03a (±0.03) 0.13a (±0.06)
Lorsban 4EC 680.4 g 23-May 50.0b (±0.0) 3.3a (±3.3) 0.20ab (±0.07) 0.03a (±0.03)
Avaunt 30WG +Sunspray
horticultural oil
51.1 g,0.95 l 23-May 50.0b (±5.8) 40.0bcd (±9.1) 0.40bc (±0.11) 0.50bc (±0.13)
Avaunt 30WG +Sunspray
horticultural oil
51.1 g,0.95 l 23-May, 18 July 60.0b (±5.8) 23.3abc (±7.9) 0.70cd (±0.15) 0.23ab (±0.08)
Endosulfan 3EC 340.2 g 23-May, 18 July,
15 Aug
63.3b (±13.3) 33.3abc (±8.8) 0.67cd (±0.16) 0.43bc (±0.12)
Paint alone 33% v/v 24-Apr 63.3b (±12.0) 46.7cd (±9.3) 0.67cd (±0.17) 0.53c (±0.12)
Untreated   76.7b (±8.8) 76.7d (±7.9) 0.90d (±0.19) 1.33d (±0.21)

Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different (p < 0.05).

In a survey we conducted recently, we observed some relationships between borer infestation and various orchard parameters such as the proportion of trees with burrknots, proximity to stone fruit orchards and presence of mouseguards. Conventional wisdom has held that borer problems are worse where mouseguards are in place. Mouseguards can contribute to increased expression of the burrknots borers invade and may shield borers from predators and insecticide sprays. This has led some growers to contemplate removing mouseguards under the premise that mice are easier to control than the borers. However, results of our survey indicate that dogwood borer larvae may be found as readily in trees without mouseguards as those with them. (American plum borer may be a different story in orchards near tart cherry or peach trees.) The orchard in which I'm conducting borer control trials has never had mouseguards and there is no shortage of dogwood borers. If mouseguards are deteriorated and no longer protect the tree, there may be some small advantage, in terms of borers, to removing them. But, in orchards where mouseguards still provide protection against rodents, removing them for the sake of borer control is probably not worth the risk. Instead, we would recommend the use of Lorsban trunk sprays to control borers. Even with mouseguards on, Lorsban will give adequate control if it is applied carefully. (i.e. a coarse, low-pressure, soaking spray with a hangun) Bottom line: as we go into Fall, consider using Lorsban after harvest to control borers, and reconsider removing mouseguards on trees where they still afford protection.

 

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This material is based upon work supported by Smith Lever funds from the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Scaffolds is published weekly from March to September by Cornell University -- NYS Agricultural Experiment Station (Geneva), and Ithaca -- with the assistance of Cornell Cooperative Extension. New York field reports welcomed. Send submissions by 3 p.m. Monday to:

Scaffolds Fruit Journal
Editors: A. Agnello, D. Kain
Dept. of Entomology, NYSAES
P.O. Box 462
Geneva, NY 14456-0462

Phone: 315-787-2341 FAX: 315-787-2326

E-mail: ama4@cornell.edu

Online at <http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ent/scaffolds/>

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