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September 9, 2002 Volume 11 No. 26 Update on Pest Management and Crop Development

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Table of Contents:
UPCOMING PEST EVENTS
PHEROMONE TRAP CATCHES

INSECTS
     2002 Arthropod pest review
     2002 Pest Events synopsis

 

Scaffolds is published weekly from March to September by Cornell University -- NYS Agricultural Experiment Station (Geneva), and Ithaca -- with the assistance of Cornell Cooperative Extension.

New York field reports welcomed. Send submissions by 3 p.m. Monday to:

Scaffolds Fruit Journal

Editors: A. Agnello, D. Kain

Dept. of Entomology, NYSAES

Geneva, NY 14456-0462

Phone: 315-787-2341 FAX: 315-787-2326

 

Scaffolds 2002 index

Upcoming Pest Events

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Insects

 

 Current DD accumulations
43°F
50°F
(Geneva 1/1-9/9):

3392

2388

(Geneva 1/1-9/9/2001):

3299

2288

(Geneva "Normal"):

3138

2202

 
Coming Events: Ranges:  

American plum borer 2nd flight subsides

2841-3698

1907-2640

Apple maggot flight subsides

2764-3656

1904-2573

Codling moth 2nd flight subsides

2841-3698

1907-2640

Lesser appleworm 2nd flight subsides

2775-3466

2002-2460

Lesser peachtree borer flight subsides

2782-3474

1796-2513

Oriental fruit moth 3rd flight subsides

2987-3522

2018-2377

Peachtree borer flight subsides

2230-3255

1497-2309

San Jose scale 2nd flight subsides

2494-3582

1662-2477

Spotted tentiform leafminer 3rd flight subsides

3235-3471

2228-2472

Redbanded leafroller 3rd flight subsides

3103-3466

2013-2402


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Trap Catches

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Insects

 

TRAP CATCHES (Number/trap/day)

Geneva        
 

8/26

8/29

9/3

9/9

Redbanded Leafroller

0.3

0.2

0.4

0.3

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

28.0

20.8

15.7

12.2

Oriental Fruit Moth

1.6

5.7

2.6

4.1

Lesser Appleworm

23.5

30.2

13.9

9.3

Codling Moth

4.4

1.0

1.3

0.9

San Jose Scale

1.3

2.0

1.0

0.8

American Plum Borer

0.3

0.2

0.3

0.1

Lesser Peachtree Borer

0.9

0.0

0.2

0.4

Peachtree Borer

1.1

0.2

0.5

0.2

Obliquebanded Leafroller

0.0

0.2

0.0

0.2

Apple maggot

0.0

0.0

0.06

0.0

Highland (Dick Straub, Peter Jentsch):

       
 

7/29

8/5

8/12

8/20

Redbanded Leafroller

0.8

0.9

1.4

4.2

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

57.4

35.6

38.3

40.1

Oriental Fruit Moth

0.9

0.9

0.4

0.2

Codling Moth

3.3

2.9

1.5

1.2

Lesser Appleworm

2.4

0.6

0.7

2.5

Tufted Apple Budmoth

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.0

Variegated Leafroller

0.5

0.6

0.9

0.6

Obliquebanded Leafroller

0.6

0.6

0.3

0.3

Apple Maggot

0.4

0.1

0.0

0.2

Sparganothis fruitworm

0.3

0.3

0.8

1.9

Fruittree leafroller

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Dogwood borer

0.6

0.6

0.1

0.0

* = 1st catch

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Insects

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Insects

 

2002 FRUIT ARTHROPOD PEST REVIEW

(Art Agnello & Dave Kain, Entomology, Geneva)

 

This is beginning to look like one of those summers that hasn't quite decided to leave us for awhile, so it looks like the harvest season will have to proceed through yet more warm temperatures. At any rate, insect and mite life cycles can't go on indefinitely, so this is probably a good time to cast a preliminary evaluation of the past season's arthropod features.

Peaks and Valleys. In a similar fashion to what we saw last year, this season's weather patterns seemed to exhibit a tendency to flirt with extreme conditions. Temperatures were hot-cold-hot, and precipitation was dry-wet-dry (with a few apparently annual devastating hailstorms thrown in), so the insect and mite activity this year seemed almost tame by comparison. Once again, pest problems were relatively moderate overall, generally occurring and progressing about as expected, so that once the tumultuous spring-to-summer changeover was complete, things tended to settle down.

The key pests offered few surprises. As occurred in 2001 European red mite control seemed to be good during the early season, with some predictable outbreaks (plus a few of twospotted mites) provoked by the midsummer heat. Plum curculio probably entered the orchards quite early, perhaps during the mid-April heat wave, and then was generally undetectable for the next few weeks, but enjoyed another extended oviposition period amidst the intermittent showers and finished up about the middle of June, so a full protectant program of 2-3 sprays was needed in most orchards. Obliquebanded leafroller appeared on schedule, and generally responded well to treatment in orchards with reliably heavy populations. Once again, some growers may have been misled by an apparent absence of July larval populations that ended up turning into fruit damage later on.

The dry weather also had its effect on foliar feeders such as aphids, leafhoppers and leafminers, which were increasingly hard to find as the summer wore on. Apple maggot normally would have been expected to show a similar effect, but some startlingly high populations were reflected in some of our demonstration plot trap catches throughout the eastern part of the state (Champlain Valley down to the Capital District and into the Hudson Valley). Of particular note this year was a troubling high incidence of woolly apple aphid throughout the state. Perhaps owing to the changing pesticide profile in apples, this pest is becoming more problematic each year, and there doesn't seem to be much in the toolbox that's capable of solving it.

In the category of running concerns, despite a redoubling of efforts to maintain late-season fruit protection, internal worms have already begun showing up in harvest inspections, particularly in the state's western counties. We saw quite high trap catches of oriental fruit moth in western NY and of lesser appleworm in the eastern half, so this is not entirely unexpected. We'll be looking for samples and spray records from problem blocks during the harvest, to begin figuring out how best to approach solving this problem. Also, dogwood borer continues to be in evidence as more growers turn their attention to potential infestation sites in dwarf and interstem plantings. This was another year that Comstock mealybug showed up in processing pears, after taking it easy the last 2 or 3 years.

A few pests either didn't make themselves very apparent or were at relatively nominal levels again this year, although it's always possible we weren't looking in the right places. Mirid bugs were apparently in their Dr. Jekyll phase this season, with little damage being found, even in insecticide trial check plots. Plenty of nymphs were present, but hatch did not begin until almost petal fall(Red Delicious), rather than peaking at full bloom as usual. Pear psylla, San Jose scale, and tarnished plant bug all appeared to be either low or else well controlled, although we’ll reserve final judgement until the harvest period is closer to its end.

 

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BLOWING COLD & HOT

(Dave Kain and Art Agnello, Entomology, Geneva)

 

We started out another season worrying we wouldn't have enough time to get all our pink sprays on due to the unseasonably warm early spring weather. Then, around bloom time it was so cool we were wondering whether the bees would be active enough to provide good pollination of many crops. (Turns out they did just fine; it appears that the cool spring weather delayed and/or stretched out the phenologies of some insects.) After bloom, things settled down to more "normal" patterns until it got hot and stopped raining in July. So, when it comes to weather and what constitutes "normal", all we really know is, you never know.

Following are comparative listings of some of the pest events that occured this season (in Geneva) with calendar and degree-day normals. The values and dates are given +/- one standard deviation; i.e., events should occur within the stated range approximately 7 years out of 10.

 

EVENT DATE
Normal (+/-days)

2002

DEGREE DAYS (BASE 43°F)

Normal (+/-DD)

2002

AMERICAN PLUM BORER

1st catch

17-May(+/-7)

20-May

422(+/-104)

487

1st flight peak

2-Jun(+/-6)

3-Jun

705(+/-143)

717

1st flight subsiding

29-Jun(+/-7)

11-Jul

1360(+/-206)

1700

2nd flight start

11-Jul(+/-5)

18-Jul

1625(+/-239)

1897

2nd flight peak

28-Jul(+/-7)

29-Jul

2190(+/-234)

2208

APPLE MAGGOT

1st catch

29-Jun(+/-9)

8-Jul

1379(+/-202)

1478

Peak

4-Aug(+/-13)

18-Jul

2385(+/-208)

1897

Subsiding

3-Sep(+/-9)

9-Sep

3115(+/-282)

3299

CODLING MOTH

1st catch

19-May(+/-7)

23-May

487(+/-103)

502

1st flight peak

4-Jun(+/-11)

7-Jun

808(+/-199)

776

2nd flight start

18-Jul(+/-14)

8-Jul

1884(+/-327)

1623

2nd flight subsiding 8-Sep(+/-14)

9-Sep

3261(+/-340)

3299

 
GREEN FRUITWORM

1st catch

4-Apr(+/-8)

15-Apr

85(+/-38)

171

Peak

14-Apr(+/-11)

15-Apr

139(+/-52)

171

Subsiding

6-May(+/-10)

3-May

333(+/-112)

350

LESSER APPLEWORM

1st catch

10-May(+/-9)

6-May

378(+/-146)

375

1st flight peak

20-May(+/-8)

6-May

548(+/-166)

375

1st flight subsiding 19-Jun(+/-9)

17-Jun

1164(+/-220)

999

 

2nd flight starts

10-Jul(+/-11)

1-Jul

1638(+/-329)

1401

2nd flight peak

31-Aug(+/-21)

15-Jul

3175(+/-292)

1801

LESSER PEACHTREE BORER

1st catch

25-May(+/-8)

23-May

578(+/-145)

502

Flight subsiding

9-Sep(+/-6)

9-Sep

3193(+/-217)

3299

OBLIQUEBANDED LEAFROLLER

1st catch

10-Jun(+/-5)

10-Jun

916(+/-87)

846

1st flight peak

19-Jun(+/-9)

24-Jun

1134(+/-194)

1182

2nd flight begins

7-Aug(+/-9)

25-Jul

2486(+/-183)

2091

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH

1st catch

1-May(+/-8)

22-Apr

291(+/-94)

309

1st flight peak

13-May(+/-11)

9-May

419(+/-93)

421

2nd flight begins

1-Jul(+/-5)

27-Jun

1432(+/-145)

1279

2nd flight peak

9-Jul(+/-10)

8-Jul

1763(+/-371)

1623

3rd flight begins

11-Aug(+/-9)

5-Aug

2548(+/-219)

2448

3rd flight peak

26-Aug(+/-15)

12-Aug

2945(+/-317)

2624

PANDEMIS LEAFROLLER

1st catch

4-Jun(+/-8)

10-Jun

806(+/-52)

846

Flight peak

11-Jun(+/-10)

13-Jun

966(+/-111)

930

Flight subsides

3-Jul(+/-6)

5-Jul

1511(+/-139)

1547

PEACHTREE BORER

1st catch

17-Jun(+/-11)

13-Jun

1055(+/-286)

930

Flight subsides

24-Aug(+/-13)

9-Sep

2827(+/-302)

3299

REDBANDED LEAFROLLER

1st catch

17-Apr(+/-8)

15-Apr

179(+/-82)

171

1st flight peak

4-May(+/-9)

18-Apr

303(+/-78)

256

2nd flight begins

1-Jul(+/-6)

27-Jun

1470(+/-211)

1279

2nd flight peak

14-Jul(+/-7)

11-Jul

1788(+/-271)

1700

2nd flight subsiding 5-Aug(+/-11)

19-Aug

2394(+/-257)

2869

 

3rd flight begins

20-Aug(+/-10)

22-Aug

2790(+/-169)

2945

3rd flight peak

27-Aug(+/-11)

3-Sep

2979(+/-242)

3233

SAN JOSE SCALE - adult males

2nd flight begins

14-Jul(+/-10)

18-Jul

1685(+/-168)

1897

2nd flight peak

7-Aug(+/-9)

1-Aug

2326(+/-221)

2313

SPOTTED TENTIFORM LEAFMINER

1st catch

19-Apr(+/-7)

15-Apr

174(+/-64)

171

1st flight peak

7-May(+/-7)

18-Apr

336(+/-81)

256

2nd flight begins

14-Jun(+/-7)

24-Jun

1059(+/-120)

1182

2nd flight peak

7-Jul(+/-11)

5-Jul

1613(+/-244)

1547

3rd flight begins

7-Aug(+/-7)

29-Jul

2489(+/-170)

2208

3rd flight peak

22-Aug(+/-10)

15-Aug

2849(+/-222)

2735

CROP PHENOLOGY DATE
Normal (+/-days)

2002

DEGREE DAYS (BASE 43°F)

Normal (+/-DD)

2002
APPLE (MCINTOSH)

Green tip

12-Apr(+/-7)

11-Apr

120(+/-27)

122

Half-inch green

21-Apr(+/-7)

16-Apr

173(+/-25)

194

Tight cluster

29-Apr(+/-6)

18-Apr

232(+/-19)

256

Pink

5-May(+/-6)

22-Apr

292(+/-19)

309

Bloom

11-May(+/-7)

2-May

383(+/-37)

341

Petal fall

18-May(+/-6)

13-May

485(+/-44)

456

APPLE (RED DELICIOUS)

Green tip

10-Apr(+/-8)

11-Apr

146(+/-38)

122

Half-inch green

18-Apr(+/-9)

16-Apr

177(+/-31)

194

Tight cluster

26-Apr(+/-6)

18-Apr

248(+/-27)

256

Pink

8-May(+/-7)

25-Apr

339(+/-47)

316

Bloom

15-May(+/-8)

9-May

434(+/-66)

421

Petal fall

23-May(+/-9)

20-May

559(+/-89)

487

PEAR (BARTLETT)

Bud burst

22-Apr(+/-7)

15-Apr

167(+/-45)

171

Green cluster

30-Apr(+/-6)

18-Apr

238(+/-27)

256

White bud

5-May(+/-7)

19-Apr

298(+/-43)

285

Bloom

8-May(+/-7)

25-Apr

350(+/-50)

316

Petal fall

15-May(+/-8)

9-May

442(+/-55)

421

SWEET CHERRY

Bud burst

21-Apr(+/-8)

15-Apr

169(+/-26)

171

White bud

29-Apr(+/-7)

16-Apr

218(+/-26)

194

Bloom

4-May(+/-6)

22-Apr

266(+/-30)

309

Petal fall

12-May(+/-5)

6-May

387(+/-47)

375

Fruit set

16-May(+/-5)

9-May

450(+/-43)

421

TART CHERRY (MONTMORENCY)

Bud burst

26-Apr(+/-7)

15-Apr

208(+/-39)

171

White bud

5-May(+/-7)

22-Apr

268(+/-29)

309

Bloom

10-May(+/-6)

25-Apr

351(+/-50)

316

Petal fall

17-May(+/-6)

20-May

458(+/-54)

487

Fruit set

23-May(+/-8)

23-May

545(+/-61)

502

 

 

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This material is based upon work supported by Smith Lever funds from the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Scaffolds is published weekly from March to September by Cornell University -- NYS Agricultural Experiment Station (Geneva), and Ithaca -- with the assistance of Cornell Cooperative Extension. New York field reports welcomed. Send submissions by 3 p.m. Monday to:

Scaffolds Fruit Journal
Editors: A. Agnello, D. Kain
Dept. of Entomology, NYSAES
P.O. Box 462
Geneva, NY 14456-0462

Phone: 315-787-2341 FAX: 315-787-2326

E-mail: ama4@cornell.edu

Online at <http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ent/scaffolds/>

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