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June 1 , 2004 Volume 13 No. 11 Update on Pest Management and Crop Development

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Coming Events

Coming Pest Events | Pest Focus | Trap Catches | Insects

Current DD accumulations
43°F
50°F

(Geneva 1/1-6/1):

787

462

(Geneva 1/1-6/1/2003):

617

321

(Geneva "Normal"):

698

378

(Geneva 6/7 Predicted):

919

546

(Highland 1/1-6/1:

1017

621

 

Coming Events:

Ranges:

 

Black cherry fruit fly 1st catch

686-985

392-636

Codling moth 1st flight peak

547-1326

307-824

European red mite summer eggs hatch

773-938

442-582

Lesser appleworm 1st flight peak

372-851

181-483

Obliquebanded leafroller pupae present

612-860

330-509

Obliquebanded leafroller 1st catch

686-1104

392-681

Pandemis leafroller 1st catch

749-955

423-509

Plum curculio oviposition scars present

448-670

232-348

Rose leafhopper adults on multiflora rose

668-916

336-519

Rose leafhopper adults on apple

736-1104

384-658

San Jose scale 1st flight peak

457-761

229-449

Spotted tentiform leafminer 2nd flight begins

795-1379

449-880

 

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Trap Catches

Coming Pest Events | Pest Focus | Trap Catches | Insects

TRAP CATCHES (Number/trap/day)
Geneva

5/20

5/24

5/27

6/1

Redbanded Leafroller

2.3

1.5

0.0

0.0

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

11.7

9.0

23.3

5.6

Oriental Fruit Moth

0.8

1.3

0.7

0.3

Lesser Appleworm

0.0

0.3*

0.5

0.0

Codling Moth

0.8

1.5

0.3

0.1

San Jose Scale

2.7

4.3

1.3

0.6

American Plum Borer

1.5

2.4

3.0

0.8

Lesser Peachtree Borer

2.3*

3.3

3.7

1.0

Peachtree Borer

0.0

0.3*

0.0

0.0

Highland (Dick Straub, Peter Jentsch):

5/10

5/17

5/24

6/1

Redbanded Leafroller

7.7

1.6

0.5

0.0

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

12.5

18.6

6.1

1.6

Oriental Fruit Moth

5.5

1.5

0.1

0.0

Codling Moth

0.1*

0.0

0.6

0.1

Lesser Appleworm

0.4*

6.7

6.7

1.9

Obliquebanded Leafroller

-

-

0.0

0.4*

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Pest Focus

Coming Pest Events | Pest Focus | Trap Catches | Insects

Highland: 1st Obliquebanded Leafroller caught over the weekend.

 

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Insects

Coming Pest Events | Pest Focus | Trap Catches | Insects


ORCHARD RADAR DIGEST

Geneva Predictions:
Roundheaded Appletree Borer
RAB peak emergence: June 12.
RAB egglaying begins: June 8. Peak egglaying period roughly: June 27 to July 12.

Codling Moth
1st generation, first sustained trap catch biofix date: May 17.
Codling moth development as of June 1: 1st generation adult emergence at 29% and 1st generation egg hatch at 0%.
1st generation 3% CM egg hatch: June 8 (= target date for first spray where multiple sprays needed to control 1st generation CM).
1st generation 20% CM egg hatch: June 16 (= single spray date where one spray needed to control 1st generation codling moth).

Obliquebanded Leafroller
1st generation OBLR flight, first trap catch expected: June 10.
If using BT insecticide, optimum date to begin 2 to 4 weekly low-rate applications for small OBLR larvae is roughly: June 26.

Oriental Fruit Moth
Optimum 1st generation - second treatment date, if needed: May 30.

San Jose Scale
1st generation SJS crawlers appear: June 19.

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
2nd STLM flight begins around: June 16.

Highland Predictions:
Roundheaded Appletree Borer
RAB peak emergence: June 2.
RAB egglaying begins: May 25. Peak egglaying period roughly: June 18 to July 3.

Codling Moth
Codling moth development as of June 1: 1st generation adult emergence at 63% and 1st generation egg hatch at 9%.
1st generation 3% CM egg hatch: May 25 (= target date for first spray where multiple sprays needed to control 1st generation CM).
1st generation 20% CM egg hatch: June 5 (= single spray date where one spray needed to control 1st generation codling moth).

Obliquebanded Leafroller
1st generation OBLR flight, first trap catch expected: June 1.
If using BT insecticide, optimum date to begin 2 to 4 weekly low-rate applications for small OBLR larvae is roughly: June 17.

San Jose Scale
1st generation SJS crawlers appear: June 11.

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
2nd STLM flight begins around: June 8.

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BUGABOO
(Art Agnello, Entomology, Geneva)

Not much remains of our anticipation that this season might be a little different from last year, as the recent rainy stretches and cool temperatures seem intent on recreating the semi-summer weather of 2003. Nonetheless, insect and mite populations are less picky about having ideal conditions under which to go about their business, and most of them are continuing along their regularly scheduled developmental paths. If there's such a thing as a normal schedule, they're probably a bit behind it, but that doesn't eliminate those points in time, like about now, when a lot of them might pop up all at once. The following are updates on some of the more noteworthy participants in this drama. Dates in parentheses, where present, are the mean date of occurrence according to our recent records.

Obliquebanded Leafroller (June 10)
We have yet to catch the first obliquebanded leafroller adult in western N.Y., but it won't be too much longer before the first moths start showing up. Depending on the location, larvae can be found now in many stages of development, from the relatively small to the pupal stage in some of the more advanced sites. This would therefore be an advisable time to hang a pheromone trap in problem apple blocks, to fix the date of first emergence in your specific area. Recall that we recommend sampling at 600 DD (base 43°F) after the first adult catch, to determine the need and timing for treatment. It pays to keep an eye on the daily highs and lows for your area if you are doing your own trapping, as it's likely that our "normal" first sampling date of July 5 won't turn out to be necessarily appropriate this year.

Stone Fruit Aphids
Although green peach aphids are not always a serious pest every year, colonies of these greenish, smooth-looking aphids may have already started showing up in peach blocks. They cause curled leaves that may turn yellow or red in severe cases, and more importantly, they are vectors of Plum Pox Virus, which still has not been documented in N.Y., fortunately. The young aphids begin to hatch about the time of peach bloom and remain on the trees for 2-3 generations, until early summer, when they seek other hosts (mainly vegetable truck crops). Green peach aphids suck the sap from the new fruits and twigs, and are also found on plum, apricot, cherry, and many ornamental shrubs. These insects are difficult to control; fortunately, Provado did obtain a federal stone fruit label, which was approved also in NY, and this would be our recommended option, where needed. Lannate and Thiodan are alternatives, but are possibly less effective. Applications are recommended before excessive leaf curling occurs, in order to maximize the spray's effectiveness. Also, keep an eye out for black cherry aphid in your cherry trees after shuck fall. If colonies are building up on the foliage, recommended materials include Provado, Sevin and Imidan (tart cherries only).

Cherry Fruit Flies (June 16)
No adults have been reported caught on sticky board traps yet, but because of the zero tolerance in cherries for insect damage or presence, it's prudent to begin sprays in your cherries now (for this pest as well as for curculio). Guthion, Imidan (tart cherries only), Sevin, Diazinon or the pyrethroids are all effective treatments. Sevin and Imidan will also control black cherry aphid.

Lesser Peachtree Borer (May 25)
The first adult was caught on May 20 in Geneva. Remember to get your trunk and scaffold sprays on peaches and cherries during the first 10 days of June if borers are a problem in your blocks. If you're planning to use Isomate-L pheromone disruption this year, this product also finally got registered in NY last year. Because of the delayed season, now would not be too late to hang the ties (100-150/acre will disrupt both species -- Peachtree Borer appears about mid-month -- in our region). This pest increases the severity of Cytospora canker infections in peaches and is often found within the canker; by feeding in the callous tissues, it interferes with the tree's natural defenses against the disease. Infestations can be determined by the presence of the insect's frass, which resembles sawdust, in the gum exuded from the wound. In peaches, you can use Lorsban 4E, Thionex, Asana, Ambush, Pounce, or Warrior for this application. In cherries, use Thionex 50WP, Asana, Pounce, Ambush, Warrior or Lorsban 50WP (tarts only) or 4E, as a trunk spray ONLY; do not spray the fruit.

Summer Oil for European Red Mite
Mite populations have been slow to build so far this season, but adults have been noted in some orchards, which means that they'll be laying summer eggs that will hatch into potential problems before long. In situations where European red mite pressure or the crop's sensitivity to them haven't necessarily justified an early season treatment with Agri-Mek, Apollo or Savey (or if you didn't get a chance to spray during the brief prebloom window), this is the time of year when a summer oil program might be considered as an alternative preventive approach, particularly considering this species' slow start from our cool spring weather. Field research trials conducted in commercial and experimental apple orchards in western N.Y. have shown the effectiveness of using a highly refined oil in a seasonal program to control mites throughout the summer. Some examples of these products are PureSpray Spray Oil 10E (Petro Canada), Sunspray Ultra Fine Spray Oil (Sun Refining & Marketing, Philadelphia), Stylet-Oil (JMS Flower Farms), and Omni Supreme (an ExxonMobil product formulated using Orchex 796 and distributed in our area by Helena); others are labeled, although we haven't tested all brands.

Our approach is to make three applications, on a preventive schedule, immediately after the bloom period, before mite populations have a chance to build. The first application can be any time from petal fall to 1-2 weeks later, followed by two additional sprays at 10-14-day intervals. The oil is not concentrated in the tank, but rather mixed on the basis of a rate per 100 gallons of finish spray solution; in most cases, we recommend 100 gal. per acre. A rate of 1-2 gal/100 should maintain control of most moderate populations. Don't apply without leaving at least a 10-14-day interval before or after a captan spray.

San Jose Scale (June 19)
Minute SJS adult males emerge in the spring from beneath scale covers on the trees, usually during bloom, and mate. We caught the first adult males in our traps on 5/17. The females produce live crawlers within 4-6 weeks of mating; these make their way to new sites and insert their mouthparts into the tree, secreting a white waxy covering that eventually darkens to black. SJS infestations on the bark contribute to an overall decline in tree vigor, growth, and productivity. Fruit feeding causes distinct red-purple spots that decrease the cosmetic appeal of the fruit. Insecticidal sprays are most effective when directed against the first generation crawlers, specifically timed for the first and peak crawler activity, which are usually 7-10 days apart.

The most reliable method of determining first appearance of the crawlers in your specific area is by putting sticky-tape traps on the tree limb near encrusted areas and checking them at least twice a week, starting about the second week of June. Alternatively, a degree-day accumulation of 310 (50°F base) from the date of first adult catch has also been shown to be reliable if the degree-days are known with some accuracy. In the Geneva area, first crawler emergence has tended to occur sometime around mid-June. The Orchard Radar predictions are for this to occur June 11 in the Hudson Valley and June 19 in the Geneva area. Lorsban used to be the standard recommended treatment for scale, and since it's no longer labeled for summer use, we're fortunate to have Esteem 35WP available, which is quite effective against this pest. It should be applied at 4-5 oz/acre at first crawler emergence; a low rate (0.25% or 1 qt/100) of a highly refined summer oil (see above) has been shown to improve penetration and, therefore, control. The remaining OP's such as Guthion and Imidan, as well as Provado, are alternative options.

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MODEL BUILDING

Plum Curculio. There hasn't been much movement toward the 340 DD (base 50°F) spray cutoff for this pest.  However, the 10-day forecast calls for uniform highs in the 70's, so these can add up fast (we hope).  Some sample numbers:

   Albion (May 17 PF estimate) - 109

   Appleton/Niagara Co. (May 20 PF estimate) - 67

   Clifton Park/Capital District (May 15 PF estimate) - 246

   Geneva (May 17 PF estimate) - 145

   Highland (May 10 PF estimate) - 261

   Lyndonville (May 17 PF estimate) - 114

   Sodus (May 17 PF estimate) - 135

   Williamson (May 17 PF estimate) - 112

Oriental Fruit Moth. This pest's development is tracked using a 45F DD model from biofix, defined as the first sustained moth catch.  Peach growers should be somewhere between their first (at PF) and second (14 days later) applications of a pyrethroid for this insect (plus plum curculio).

SITE

BIOFIX

CUM DD-45

APPROX.% HATCH

Appleton

4/30

356

56%

Albion

5/4

351

55%

Geneva

5/7

398

68%

Lyndonville

4/30

395

67%

Williamson

5/3

377

62%

Codling Moth. Also relatively behind recent years.  With 250 DD (base 50°F) as a first spray date, we currently have:

   Geneva (1st catch May 17) - 145

   Highland (1st catch May 10) - 340

   Albion (1st catch May 17) - 109

   Williamson (1st catch May 18) - 95

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This material is based upon work supported by Smith Lever funds from the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Return to top