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June 8, 2004 Volume 13 No. 12 Update on Pest Management and Crop Development

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Coming Events

Coming Pest Events | Pest Focus | Trap Catches | Insects

Current DD accumulations
43°F
50°F

(Geneva 1/1-6/7):

887

522

(Geneva 1/1-6/7/2003):

706

371

(Geneva "Normal"):

798

445

(Geneva 6/14 Predicted):

1076

664

(Highland 1/1-6/7:

1124

686

 

[Ed. Note: In the past, we have reported a range for the "Coming Events" that covers the earliest noted occurrence to the latest incidence noted, according to our records.  However, because some of these numbers (dates) come from records that are quite old, and we are unable to vouch for the accuracy of all of them, this sometimes produces a potential DD range that is unrealistically wide.  To address this incongruency somewhat, we have decided to switch to a range that encompasses one standard deviation on either side of the mean DD occurrence, which gives a more realistic expectation of when any of these events might actually occur.  Statistically, events should generally take place within the stated range approximately 7 years out of 10.]

Coming Events:

Ranges:

 

Black cherry fruit fly 1st catch

702-934

380-576

Codling moth 1st flight peak

613-995

332-586

European red mite summer eggs hatch

447-555

237-309

Oriental fruit moth 1st flight subsides

843-1297

493-823

Pandemis leafroller flight peak

868-1050

505-601

Peachtree borer 1st catch

780-1338

445-829

Pear psylla 2nd brood hatches

967-1185

584-750

Rose leafhopper adults on apple

809-1053

440-622

San Jose scale 1st flight subsides

838-1164

508-712

San Jose scale 1st generation crawlers present

1033-1215

619-757

Spotted tentiform leafminer 2nd flight begins

944-1180

555-739

 

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Trap Catches

Coming Pest Events | Pest Focus | Trap Catches | Insects

TRAP CATCHES (Number/trap/day)
Geneva

5/27

6/1

6/3

6/7

Redbanded Leafroller

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

23.3

5.6

7.8

2.4

Oriental Fruit Moth

0.7

0.3

0.0

0.0

Lesser Appleworm

0.5

0.0

0.0

0.0

Codling Moth

0.3

0.1

0.8

0.3

San Jose Scale

1.3

0.6

1.5

0.3

Obliquebanded Leafroller

-

-

0.0

0.9*

Pandemis Leafroller

-

-

0.0

1.0*

American Plum Borer

3.0

0.8

0.0

0.8

Lesser Peachtree Borer

3.7

1.0

0.5

0.5

Peachtree Borer

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

 

Highland (Dick Straub, Peter Jentsch):

5/17

5/24

6/1

6/7

Redbanded Leafroller

1.6

0.5

0.0

0.0

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

18.6

6.1

1.6

46.8

Oriental Fruit Moth

1.5

0.1

0.0

0.0

Codling Moth

0.0

0.6

0.1

0.0

Lesser Appleworm

6.7

6.7

1.9

1.0

Obliquebanded Leafroller

-

0.0

0.4*

1.8

Redbanded Leafroller

2.3

1.5

0.0

0.0

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

11.7

9.0

23.3

5.6

Oriental Fruit Moth

0.8

1.3

0.7

0.3

Lesser Appleworm

0.0

0.3*

0.5

0.0

Codling Moth

0.8

1.5

0.3

0.1

San Jose Scale

2.7

4.3

1.3

0.6

American Plum Borer

1.5

2.4

3.0

0.8

Lesser Peachtree Borer

2.3*

3.3

3.7

1.0

Peachtree Borer

0.0

0.3*

0.0

0.0

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Pest Focus

Coming Pest Events | Pest Focus | Trap Catches | Insects


Geneva: 1st Obliquebanded Leafroller and Pandemis Leafroller caught over
the weekend.

Highland: Pear Psylla eggs and nymphs present.
Mirid Bug damage evident.
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 2nd flight beginning.

 

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Insects

Coming Pest Events | Pest Focus | Trap Catches | Insects


ORCHARD RADAR DIGEST

Geneva Predictions:
Roundheaded Appletree Borer
RAB peak emergence: June 11.
RAB egglaying begins: June 7. Peak egglaying period roughly: June 27 to July 11.

Codling Moth
1st generation, first sustained trap catch biofix date: May 17.
Codling moth development as of June 7: 1st generation adult emergence at 45% and 1st generation egg hatch at 1%.
1st generation 3% CM egg hatch: June 8 (= target date for first spray where multiple sprays needed to control 1st generation CM).
1st generation 20% CM egg hatch: June 14 (= single spray date where one spray needed to control 1st generation codling moth).

Obliquebanded Leafroller
1st generation OBLR flight, first trap catch expected: June 9.
If using BT insecticide, optimum date to begin 2 to 4 weekly low-rate applications for small OBLR larvae is roughly: June 25.

Oriental Fruit Moth
2nd generation OFM flight begins around: July 1.
Optimum 2nd generation - first treatment date, if needed: July 6.

Redbanded Leafroller
2nd RBLR flight begins around: July 2.

San Jose Scale
1st generation SJS crawlers appear: June 18.

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
2nd STLM flight begins around: June 15.
Rough guess when 2nd generation sap-feeding mines begin showing: July 5.

Highland Predictions:
Roundheaded Appletree Borer
RAB peak egglaying period roughly: June 18 to July 3.

Codling Moth
Codling moth development as of June 7: 1st generation adult emergence at 77% and 1st generation egg hatch at 25%.
1st generation 20% CM egg hatch: June 5 (= single spray date where one spray needed to control 1st generation codling moth).

Lesser Appleworm
2nd LAW flight begins around: July 1.

Obliquebanded Leafroller
If using BT insecticide, optimum date to begin 2 to 4 weekly low-rate applications for small OBLR larvae is roughly: June 16.

Oriental Fruit Moth
2nd generation OFM flight begins around: June 23.
Optimum 2nd generation - first treatment date, if needed: June 26.

Redbanded Leafroller
2nd RBLR flight begins around: June 24.

San Jose Scale
1st generation SJS crawlers appear: June 10.

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
2nd STLM flight begins around: June 8.
Rough guess when 2nd generation sap-feeding mines begin showing: June 27.

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LICKING THEIR CHOPS
(Harvey Reissig & Dave Combs, Entomology, Geneva)

Obliquebanded leafroller moths have yet to be caught in Geneva, but they've been flying in the Hudson Valley since last week. Our short-term forecast for hot temperatures should coax the first adults to emerge in most sites in western NY this week. First hatch is generally assumed to occur from about 300–360 DD (base 43°F) after the flight starts, so we'll be updating you each week with values for Highland and Geneva as things get rolling. With some improved pesticide tools now available to NY growers, OBLR management has not appeared to be as much of a challenge recently as it has been in past years, although this pest has not faded into obscurity, and many of the old problem orchards can still be counted on for a reality check if we start to get complacent. Accordingly, a brief synopsis of last year's research efficacy trials would be in order.

Treatments were applied with an airblast sprayer calibrated to deliver 100 gallons of water/A to plots of apple trees in a Wayne Co. orchard consisting of Jonagold and Rome cultivars. Trees were ca. 10 ft high and planted 4 x 15 ft apart. Plots were 6 to 8 successive trees long and replicated three times (2 reps in Jonagold and 1 rep in Rome). Materials were applied based on estimated DD accumulations (base temp. = 43°F) after the beginning of the summer flight of adults on 16 Jun. All applications were made after an accumulation of 630 DD (estimated 50% hatch, 8 Jul) from the start of the summer flight. These sprays were then re-applied (22 Jul) 14 days from the first application date. Fruit damage from the summer generation was estimated on 1 Aug by inspecting 200 fruit on the tree within the center of each plot. Damage was assessed as present or absent regardless of severity. Final harvest samples were taken on 2 Sep by grading 200 fruit taken from each plot and rating them according to the USDA scale of extra fancy, # 1, utility or cull. Data was subjected to an AOV and means were separated using Fisher's Protected LSD Test (p<0.05). Data was transformed Arcsin (Sqrt X) prior to analysis.

Results are given in Table 1. Pressure from OBLR was relatively low compared with past years, and fruit damage levels for the summer reading had few statistical differences. The industry standards of Spintor (1.3%) and Intrepid (1.5%) had statistically comparable amounts of damage to the untreated check plot (4.2%).

The final harvest reading yielded similar results for total amounts of damage found within the plots. Intrepid fared better than the other two treatments; an important note is that both insecticide treatments had significantly fewer cull and utility apples than the untreated check. These two grades represent the highest levels of damage, so the results show that both materials had an effect on the damage potential of this pest.

Table1

A second, small-plot seasonal program trial was conducted in a NYSAES research orchard, using a handgun sprayer (400 psi) and 3 replicates of 4-tree plots, arranged in a RCB design. Cultivars in the treated plots were: Empire, Cortland, Jonagold, and Delicious. Application dates included the following stages: Tight Cluster (TC), 4 April; Pink (PK), 5 May; Petal Fall (PF), 27 May; and cover sprays at 1C, 6 June; 2C, 16 Jun; 3C, 30 Jun; 4C, 14 July; 5C, 28 July; 6C, 13 August; and 7C, 26 August. One plot was sprayed on a 21, day schedule for some of the cover sprays, and these dates were: 1C, 12 June; 2C, 23 June; 3C, 14 July; 4C, 4 August; and 5C, 27 August. Fifty apples per tree were selected randomly from each of the 4 trees per replicate on 22–26 September and examined for insect damage.

The results, presented in Table 2, show that OBLR pressure in the untreated check was moderate (7.4%), and all treatments except the Assail and Calypso/Avaunt programs significantly reduced damage from this pest. Calypso is a neonicotinoid not currently registered in NYS, but the 4C and 5C applications of Avaunt in July would have corresponded with the appropriate treatment window for summer OBLR larvae. GF-317 is a numbered pyrethroid compound similar to Warrior.

Table 2

 

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MODEL BUILDING

   Plum Curculio. We're slowly approaching the 340 DD (base 50°F) spray cutoff for this pest, and this week's temperatures are forecast to reach the high 80's at least, so it won't be long now.  Our sample numbers:

   Albion (May 17 PF estimate) - 166

   Appleton/Niagara Co. (May 20 PF estimate) - 119

   Clifton Park/Capital District (May 15 PF estimate) - 323

   Geneva (May 17 PF estimate) - 202

   Highland (May 10 PF estimate) - 326

   Lyndonville (May 17 PF estimate) - 165

   Sodus (May 17 PF estimate) - 190

   Williamson (May 17 PF estimate) - 165

   Oriental Fruit Moth. This pest's development is tracked using a 45°F DD model from biofix, defined as the first sustained moth catch.  Peach growers should have applied their second (14 days after PF) application of a pyrethroid by now for this insect (plus plum curculio).

SITE

BIOFIX

CUM DD-45

APPROX.% HATCH

Appleton

4/30

437

78%

Albion

5/4

442

79%

Geneva

5/7

485

87%

Lyndonville

4/30

475

85%

Williamson

5/3

460

83%

Codling Moth. With 250 DD (base 50°F) as a first spray date, we currently have:

   Geneva (1st catch May 17) - 202

   Albion (1st catch May 17) - 166

   Williamson (1st catch May 18) - 148

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This material is based upon work supported by Smith Lever funds from the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Return to top