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July 6, 2004 Volume 13 No. 16 Update on Pest Management and Crop Development

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Coming Events

Coming Pest Events | Pest Focus | Trap Catches | Insects | General Info

Current DD accumulations
43°F
50°F

(Geneva 1/1-7/6):

1554

952

(Geneva 1/1-7/6/2003):

1391

836

(Geneva "Normal"):

1519

993

(Geneva 7/12 Predicted):

1721

1077

(Highland 1/1-7/6):

1877

1243

 

Coming Events:

Ranges:

 

American plum borer 2nd flight begins

1402-1876 

1020-1224

Codling moth 1st flight subsides

1296-1946

808-1252

Comstock mealybug 1st flight peak

1505-1731

931-1143

Lesser appleworm 2nd flight begins

1324-1968

866-1298

Obliquebanded leafroller summer larvae hatch

1038-1460

625-957

Oriental fruit moth 2nd flight peak

1379-2101

972-1368

Peachtree borer 1st catch

780-1338

445-829

Redbanded leafroller 2nd flight peak

1527-2039

972-1368

San Jose scale 2nd flight begins

1549-1913

1000-1294

Spotted tentiform leafminer 2nd flight peak

1366-1842

854-1218

STLM 2nd generation tissue feeders present

1378-2035

913-1182

 

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Trap Catches

Coming Pest Events | Pest Focus | Trap Catches | Insects | General Info

TRAP CATCHES (Number/trap/day)

Geneva

6/24

6/28

7/1

7/6

Redbanded Leafroller

0.0

0.4*

0.0

2.2

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

14.2

12.8

16.7

234

Oriental Fruit Moth

0.9*

0.3

0.0

0.6

Lesser Appleworm

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Codling Moth

0.2

0.1

0.0

0.3

San Jose Scale

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Obliquebanded Leafroller

1.5

1.3

0.7

1.2

Pandemis Leafroller

0.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

American Plum Borer

0.3

0.0

0.2

0.0

Lesser Peachtree Borer

4.0

0.8

2.7

0.4

Peachtree Borer

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.4*

Apple Maggot

0.3*

0.2

0.2

0.2

Dogwood Borer

-

0.0

0.3*

0.1

Highland (Dick Straub, Peter Jentsch):

6/14

6/21

6/28

7/6

Redbanded Leafroller

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.0

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

80.3

65.3

79.1

88.1

Oriental Fruit Moth

0.0

0.4

1.1

0.5

Codling Moth

2.1

0.3

0.2

0.4

Lesser Appleworm

2.0

1.5

0.2

0.1

Obliquebanded Leafroller

0.9

1.1

0.9

0.3

Sparganothis Fruitworm

1.6*

2.0

1.0

1.1

Tufted Apple Bud Moth

0.4*

0.5

0.4

0.2

Variegated Leafroller

0.4*

0.1

0.1

0.1

Apple Maggot

0.0

0.1*

0.3

0.3

* = 1st catch

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Pest Focus

Coming Pest Events | Pest Focus | Trap Catches | Insects | General Info

Geneva: Obliquebanded leafroller flight began 6/7. Sampling should take
place at approx. 600 degree days (base 43°F) following this
event. DD accumulated since then = 683.
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 2nd flight began 6/17. The first
sample of sap-feeding mines should be taken at 690 DD (base 43°F)
following this event. DD accumulated since then = 451.
1st Dogwood Borer trap catch 7/1.
Redbanded Leafroller trap catch increasing.

Highland: Apple Maggot fly numbers increasing/above threshold.
Rose Leafhopper and Potato Leafhopper nymphs and adults present.
Obliquebanded Leafroller fruit feeding observed.

 

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Insects

Coming Pest Events | Pest Focus | Trap Catches | Insects | General Info


ORCHARD RADAR DIGEST

Geneva Predictions:
Roundheaded Appletree Borer
Peak egglaying period roughly: June 30 to July 14.
Peak hatch roughly: July 15 to August 3.

Dogwood Borer
First Dogwood borer egg hatch roughly: June 26.

Codling Moth
Codling moth development as of July 6: 1st generation adult emergence at 99% and 1st generation egg hatch at 85%.

Lesser Appleworm
2nd LAW flight begins around: July 11.

Obliquebanded Leafroller
Where waiting to sample late instar OBLR larvae (to determine need for treatment) is an option: Optimum sample date for late instar summer generation OBLR larvae: July 4.
If first OBLR late instar larvae sample is below threshold, date for confirmation follow-up sample: July 8.

Oriental Fruit Moth
2nd generation OFM flight begins around: July 3.
Optimum 2nd generation - first treatment date, if needed: July 9.

Redbanded Leafroller
Peak catch and approximate start of egg hatch: July 15.

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
Rough guess when 2nd generation sap-feeding mines begin showing: July 8.
Optimum first sample date for 2nd generation STLM sapfeeding mines:
July 14.

Highland Predictions:
Roundheaded Appletree Borer
Peak hatch roughly: July 2 to July 24.

Dogwood Borer
Peak Dogwood borer egg hatch roughly: July 25.

Codling Moth
Codling moth development as of June 28: 2nd generation adult emergence at 2% and 1st generation egg hatch at 99%.

Lesser Appleworm
2nd LAW flight begins around: July 2.

Obliquebanded Leafroller
If first OBLR late instar larvae sample is below threshold, date for confirmation follow-up sample: July 1.

Oriental Fruit Moth
Optimum 2nd generation - second treatment date, if needed: July 8.

Redbanded Leafroller
Peak catch and approximate start of egg hatch: July 6.

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
Optimum first sample date for 2nd generation STLM sapfeeding mines: July 4.
Second optimized sample date for 2nd generation STLM sapfeeding mines, if needed: July 10.

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MODEL BUILDING

   Oriental Fruit Moth. This pest's development is tracked using a 45°F DD model from biofix, defined as the first sustained moth catch.  We are currently just into the start of the second brood, which started about June 30 in WNY.  Pesticides to control this brood should be applied at 175-200 DD after this date.  Our sample numbers as of today:

Albion - 126
Geneva - 125
Appleton - 128
Williamson - 123

   Codling Moth. We are currently between the first and second brood control windows for this pest.  With 1260 DD (base 50°F) from the 1st catch of the season as a first spray date for the second brood, we currently have:

Geneva (1st catch May 17) - 663
Albion (1st catch May 17) - 606
Williamson (1st catch May 18) - 584

   Obliquebanded Leafroller. 25% egg hatch is predicted at 450 DD (base 43°F) from the 1st catch, with 50% egg hatch at 630 DD.  Our sample numbers so far:

Geneva (1st catch June 7) - 639
Albion (1st catch June 8) - 580
Sodus (1st catch June 10) - 539
Williamson (1st catch June 9) - 545

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LITTLE SUCKERS

(Harvey Reissig & Art Agnello, Entomology, Geneva)

   A number of orchards have begun to show infestations of foliar pests now, some of which tend to increase in response to the "flush growth" that is caused by the frequent showers and adequate moisture that we have experienced this season.  Green aphids are more plentiful in the Hudson Valley so far; potato leafhoppers were very early there and are showing up now in western NY.  No doubt all growers in all our regions would do well to keep an eye on local populations.

Green Aphids: Apple aphid, Aphis pomi, Spirea aphid, Aphis spiraecola

   Although small numbers of these aphids may be present on trees early in the season, populations generally start to increase in mid- to late June.  This trend has been delayed somewhat by the cool spring weather this year, but our early plentiful rains and predicted heat should soon provoke a respectable amount of the succulent terminal growth much favored by these insects.  Large numbers of both species may build up on growing terminals on apple trees during summer.  Both species are apparently common during the summer in most N.Y. orchards, although no extensive surveys have been done to compare their relative abundance in different production areas throughout the season.

   Nymphs and adults of both species suck sap from growing terminals and water sprouts.  High populations cause leaves to curl and may stunt shoot growth on young trees.  Aphids excrete large amounts of honeydew, which collects on fruit and foliage.  Sooty mold fungi that develop on honeydew cause the fruit to turn black, reducing its quality.

   Aphids should be sampled several times throughout this season starting in late June.  Inspect 10 rapidly growing terminals from each of 5 trees throughout the orchard.  Record the percentage of infested terminals.  No formal studies have been done to develop an economic threshold for aphids in N.Y. orchards.  Currently, treatment is recommended if 30% of the terminals are infested with either species of aphid, or at 50% terminal infestation and less than 20% of the terminals with predators.  An alternative threshold is given as 10% of the fruits exhibiting either aphids or honeydew.

   The larvae of syrphid (hoverflies) and cecidomyiid flies (midges) prey on aphids throughout the summer.  These predators complete about three generations during the summer.  Most insecticides are somewhat toxic to these two predators, and they usually cannot build up sufficient numbers to control aphids adequately in regularly sprayed orchards.  Check Tables 5 (p. 54) and 12 (p. 61) in the Recommends for toxicity ratings of common spray materials.  Both aphids are resistant to most organophosphates, but materials in other chemical classes control these pests effectively, including Asana, Danitol, Dimethoate, Lannate, Provado, Thiodan, Vydate and Warrior.

Potato leafhopper (PLH), Empoasca fabae

   PLH is generally a more serious problem in the Hudson Valley than in western New York or the Champlain Valley.  PLH does not overwinter in the Northeast but instead migrates on thermals (warm air masses) from the South.  Adults usually reach the Hudson Valley by May or early June and are found from mid- to late June in western New York.  Because PLH migrate constantly during the season, there are no distinct broods or generations and the pest may be present continuously in orchards from June through harvest.

   PLH feeds on tender young terminal leaves. Initially, injured leaves turn yellow around the edges, then become chlorotic and deformed (cupping upward) and later turn brown or scorched.  Damage is caused by a toxin injected by PLH while feeding.  PLH also occasionally causes symptoms similar to the effects of growth regulators, such as excessive branching preceding or beyond the point of extensive feeding.  PLH damage is often mistaken for injury caused by herbicides, nutrient deficiency, or overfertilization.  PLH injury may not be serious on mature trees but can severely stunt the growth of young trees.

   Nymphs and adults should be counted on 50 to 100 randomly selected terminal leaves in an orchard.  Older trees should be sampled approximately every three weeks during the summer.  Young trees should be sampled weekly from early June through July.  PLH nymphs are often characterized as moving sideways like crabs, whereas WALH generally move forward and back.  No formal studies have been conducted in New York to determine the economic injury level for PLH on apples, so we suggest a tentative threshold of an average of one nymph or adult PLH per leaf.

   Little is known about the natural enemies of PLH, but it is assumed that they cannot control this pest in commercial New York orchards. Populations of PLH in New York are resistant to the conventional organophosphate materials.  The list of effective materials is similar to that given for aphids, with the addition of Avaunt.

Apple rust mite (ARM), Aculus schlechtendali

   The wedge-shaped adult has two pairs of legs at the front of its body and is brownish yellow in color.  These mites are invisible to the naked eye, requiring a minimum magnification of 15X to be observed.

   This species attacks apple primarily.  Yellowish brown leaf discoloration occurs under very populated conditions (hundreds per leaf), sometimes accompanied by silvery-white blotches.  Browning of the lower surface and drying out of the leaves occur as well.  In serious infestations, they may occasionally russet fruit. 

      Under most circumstances, growers will not notice an infestation until leaf damage has occurred, and populations generally taper off by midsummer anyway.  As a means of prevention, preserve mite predators.  Miticides are of questionable value and can be used if populations are very high (>500/leaf), but lower numbers are valuable as prey for predator mites.  Kelthane is quite effective, as is Agri-Mek.

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General Info

Coming Pest Events | Pest Focus | Trap Catches | Insects | General Info

PRESS RELEASE: CORNELL CENTENNIAL FRUIT FIELD DAYS AT GENEVA

Cornell University will host the Centennial Fruit Field Days and Equipment Show at the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva, NY on July 27 and 28 from 8:00 am - 4:00 pm. Fruit growers, consultants, and industry personnel are invited to tour field plots and learn about the latest research and extension efforts being carried out by researchers on the Geneva and Ithaca campuses. The focus will be on all commodities key to New York's $300 million fruit industry: apples, grapes, raspberries, strawberries, peaches, pears, cherries, and nectarines.

"The event celebrates a century of fruit breeding and technology innovation at Cornell's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, which this year is celebrating its 100th year as the New York State College of Agriculture," said Terence Robinson, associate professor of horticultural sciences and one of the organizers. "On July 27, we will focus on tree fruit technologies and demonstrations and July 28, we will focus on grape and small fruit production."

In addition to the field trials, an international array of equipment will help growers determine which technologies are best for orchard or vineyard. Representatives from various companies will advise growers on the latest technologies. Each day, the Cornell pesticide application technology team will demonstrate different methods of improving deposition and testing sprayers, including tips about nozzle orientation.

The event will be held on the Station's Fruit and Vegetable Research Farm South, 1097 County Road No. 4, 1 mile west of Pre-Emption Rd. in Geneva, NY. Signs will be posted. Attendees will be able to select from tours of apples, stone fruits, small fruits, and grapes. Admission is free and lunch is provided, courtesy of industry sponsors. Pre-registration is encouraged.

The last Fruit Field Day was held in Geneva in 2000 and brought in 425 representatives from nurseries, the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets, the United States Department of Agriculture, Cornell Cooperative Extension, fruit processors, as well as growers from Western New York, the Hudson Valley, Central New York, the Finger Lakes, Ontario, and neighboring states. Organizers this year expect over 500 attendees. The event is co-sponsored by the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station and the New York State Horticultural Society. For sponsorship and exhibitor information, contact Alison DeMarree at 315-589-9698 or Emailto: AMD15@cornell.edu. More information will be posted as it becomes available. To pre-register, contact Nancy Long at 315-787-2288 or Emailto: NPL1@cornell.edu. More information about this event and a complete agenda for both days is available at: http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/pubs/press/2004/040622FruitFieldDays.html

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This material is based upon work supported by Smith Lever funds from the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

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