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July 12, 2004 Volume 13 No. 17 Update on Pest Management and Crop Development

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Coming Events

Coming Pest Events | Pest Focus | Trap Catches | Insects | General Info

Current DD accumulations
43°F
50°F
(Geneva 1/1-7/12):
1702
1059
(Geneva 1/1-7/12/2003):
1555
957
(Geneva "Normal"):
1668
1101
(Geneva 7/19 Predicted):
1894
1201
(Highland 1/1-7/19):
2086
1404

 

Coming Events:

Ranges:

 

American plum borer 2nd flight begins

1402-1876

1020-1224

Apple maggot 1st oviposition punctures

1528-2078

1021-1495

Codling moth 2nd flight begins

1573-2299

1018-1540

Comstock mealybug 1st flight subsides

1818-2132

1216-1418

Dogwood borer flight peak

1564-2022

1001-1327

Obliquebanded leafroller 1st flight subsides

1613-2131

1034-1434

Oriental fruit moth 2nd flight peak

1379-2101

972-1368

Redbanded leafroller 2nd flight peak

1527-2039

972-1368

San Jose scale 2nd flight begins

1549-1913

1000-1294

STLM 2nd generation tissue feeders present

1378-2035

913-1182

 

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Trap Catches

Coming Pest Events | Pest Focus | Trap Catches | Insects | General Info

TRAP CATCHES (Number/trap/day)
Geneva

6/28

7/1

7/6

7/12

Redbanded Leafroller

0.4*

0.0

2.2

1.9

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

12.8

16.7

234

133

Oriental Fruit Moth

0.3

0.0

0.6

0.3

Lesser Appleworm

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1*

Codling Moth

0.1

0.0

0.3

0.3

San Jose Scale

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Obliquebanded Leafroller

1.3

0.7

1.2

0.2

Pandemis Leafroller

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

American Plum Borer

0.0

0.2

0.0

0.1

Lesser Peachtree Borer

0.8

2.7

0.4

0.2

Peachtree Borer

0.0

0.0

0.4*

0.2

Apple

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.0

Dogwood Borer

0.0

0.3*

0.1

0.3

Highland (Dick Straub, Peter Jentsch):

6/21

6/28

7/6

7/12

Redbanded Leafroller

0.0

0.2

0.0

0.0

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

65.3

79.1

88.1

58.5

Oriental Fruit Moth

0.4

1.1

0.5

0.7

Codling Moth

0.3

0.2

0.4

0.1

Lesser Appleworm

1.5

0.2

0.1

0.4

Obliquebanded Leafroller

1.1

0.9

0.3

0.0

Sparganothis Fruitworm

2.0

1.0

1.1

0.3

Tufted Apple Bud Moth

0.5

0.4

0.2

0.0

Variegated Leafroller 0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

Apple Maggot

0.1*

0.3

0.3

0.9

* = 1st catch

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Pest Focus

Coming Pest Events | Pest Focus | Trap Catches | Insects | General Info

Geneva: 1st adult of Lesser Appleworm 2nd flight caught today, 7/12.
Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 2nd flight began 6/17. The first
sample of sap-feeding mines should be taken at 690 DD (base 43F)
following this event. DD accumulated since then = 615.

Highland: Apple Maggot fly numbers remain above threshold.
European Red Mite numbers high.

 

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Insects

Coming Pest Events | Pest Focus | Trap Catches | Insects | General Info


ORCHARD RADAR DIGEST

Geneva Predictions:
Roundheaded Appletree Borer
Peak egglaying period roughly: June 30 to July 14.
Peak hatch roughly: July 15 to August 3.

Codling Moth
Codling moth development as of July 9: 1st generation adult emergence at 100% and 1st generation egg hatch at 91%.

Lesser Appleworm
2nd LAW flight begins around: July 12.

Oriental Fruit Moth
Optimum 2nd generation - first treatment date, if needed: July 9.
Optimum 2nd generation - second treatment date, if needed: July 21.

Redbanded Leafroller
Peak catch and approximate start of egg hatch: July 16.

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
Optimum first sample date for 2nd generation STLM sapfeeding mines:
July 15.

Highland Predictions:
Roundheaded Appletree Borer
Peak hatch roughly: July 2 to July 24.

Dogwood Borer
Peak Dogwood borer egg hatch roughly: July 25.

Codling Moth
Codling moth development as of July 9: 2nd generation adult emergence at 4% and 1st generation egg hatch at 99%.

Oriental Fruit Moth
Optimum 2nd generation - second treatment date, if needed: July 8.

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
Second optimized sample date for 2nd generation STLM sapfeeding mines, if needed: July 10.
Third optimized sample date for 2nd generation STLM sapfeeding mines, if needed: July 21.

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MODEL BUILDING

   Oriental Fruit Moth. This pest's development is tracked using a 45°F DD model from biofix, defined as the first sustained moth catch.  We are currently into the start of the second brood, which started about June 30 in WNY.  Pesticides to control this brood should be applied at 175-200 DD after this date.  Our sample numbers as of today:

Albion - 263
Geneva - 264
Appleton - 267
Williamson - 258

   Codling Moth. We are currently between the first and second brood control windows for this pest.  With 1260 DD (base 50°F) from the 1st catch of the season as a first spray date for the second brood, we currently have:

Geneva (1st catch May 17) - 772
Albion (1st catch May 17) - 713
Williamson (1st catch May 18) - 689
Highland (1st catch May 10) - 1123

   Obliquebanded Leafroller. The earliest emerging larvae are predicted to reach the larger (starting at 4th) instars at 720 DD (base 43°F) from the 1st catch, and 810 DD corresponds with 90% hatch.  Our sample numbers so far:

Geneva (1st catch June 7) - 818
Albion (1st catch June 8) - 754
Sodus (1st catch June 10) - 715
Williamson (1st catch June 9) - 718

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'TIL THE FAT LADYBUG SINGS

(Art Agnello, Entomology, Geneva)

   There are many insects present in apple orchards that provide a benefit to growers by feeding on pest species.  It is important that growers and orchard managers be able to recognize these natural enemies, so that they are not mistaken for pests.  The best way to conserve beneficial insects is to spray only when necessary, and to use materials that are less toxic to them (see Table 5 and Table 12 of the Recommends).  This brief review, taken from IPM Tree-Fruit Fact Sheet No. 18, "Beneficial Insects" covers the major beneficial insects that are likely to be seen in N.Y. orchards, concentrating on the most commonly seen life stages.  Factsheet No. 23, "Predatory Mites", reviews mites that are important predators of leaf-feeding mites.

CECIDOMYIID LARVAE (Aphidoletes aphidimyza)

   This fly (Family Cecidomyiidae) is an aphid predator, and overwinters as a larva or pupa in a cocoon.  Adults emerge from this cocoon, mate, and females lay eggs among aphid colonies.  The adults are delicate, resembling mosquitoes, and are not likely to be seen.  The eggs are very small (about 0.3 mm or 1/85 in. long) and orange.  They hatch into small, brightly colored, orange larvae that can be found eating aphids on the leaf surface.  These predacious larvae are present from mid-June throughout the summer.  There are 3-6 generations per year.  In addition to aphids, they also feed on soft-bodied scales and mealybugs.

SYRPHID FLY LARVAE (Family Syrphidae)

   The Family Syrphidae contains the "hover flies", so named because of the adults' flying behavior.  They are brightly colored with yellow and black stripes, resembling bees.  Syrphids overwinter as pupae in the soil.  In the spring, the adults emerge, mate, and lay single, long whitish eggs on foliage or bark, from early spring through mid-summer, usually among aphid colonies.  One female lays several eggs.  After hatching, the larvae feed on aphids by piercing their bodies and sucking the fluids, leaving shriveled, blackened aphid cadavers.  These predacious larvae are shaped cylindrically and taper toward the head.  There are 5-7 generations per year.  Syrphid larvae feed on aphids, and may also feed on scales and caterpillars.

LADYBIRD BEETLES (Family Coccinellidae)

   • Stethorus punctum: This ladybird beetle is an important predator of European red mite in parts of the northeast, particularly in Pennsylvania, and has been observed intermittently in the Hudson Valley of N.Y., and occasionally in western N.Y.  Stethorus overwinters as an adult in the "litter" and ground cover under trees, or in nearby protected places.  The adults are rounded, oval, uniformly shiny black, and are about 1.3-1.5 mm (1/16 in.) long.  Eggs are laid mostly on the undersides of the leaves, near the primary veins, at a density of 1-10 per leaf.  They are small and pale white, and about 0.3-0.4 mm (1/85 in.) long.  Eggs turn black just prior to hatching.  The larva is gray to blackish with numerous hairs, but becomes reddish as it matures, starting on the edges and completing the change just prior to pupation.  There are 3 generations per year in south-central Pennsylvania, with peak periods of larval activity in mid-May, mid-June and mid-August.  The pupa is uniformly black, small and flattened, and is attached to the leaf.

   • Other Ladybird Beetles: Ladybird beetles are very efficient predators of aphids, scales and mites.  Adults are generally hemisphere-shaped, and brightly colored or black, ranging in size from 0.8 to over 8 mm (0.03-0.3 in.).  They overwinter in sheltered places and become active in the spring.  Eggs are laid on the undersides of leaves, usually near aphid colonies, and are typically yellow, spindle-shaped, and stand on end.  Females may lay hundreds of eggs.  The larvae have well-developed legs and resemble miniature alligators, and are brightly colored, usually black with yellow.  The pupal case can often be seen attached to a leaf or branch.  There are usually 1-2 generations per year.  One notable species that is evident now is Coccinella septempunctata, the sevenspotted lady beetle, often referred to as C-7.  This insect, which is large and reddish-orange with seven distinct black spots, was intentionally released into N.Y. state beginning in 1977, and has become established as an efficient predator in most parts of the state.

LACEWINGS (Family Chrysopidae)

   Adult lacewings are green or brown insects with net-like, delicate wings, long antennae, and prominent eyes.  The larvae are narrowly oval with two sickle-shaped mouthparts, which are used to pierce the prey and extract fluids.  Often the larvae are covered with "trash", which is actually the bodies of their prey and other debris.  Lacewings overwinter as larvae in cocoons, inside bark cracks or in leaves on the ground.  In the spring, adults become active and lay eggs on the trunks and branches.  These whitish eggs are laid singly and can be seen connected to the leaf by a long, threadlike "stem".  Lacewings feed on aphids, leafhoppers, scales, mites, and eggs of Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths).

TRUE BUGS (Order Hemiptera)

   There are many species of "true bugs" (Order Hemiptera) such as tarnished plant bug, that feed on plants, but a number of them are also predators of pest species.  The ones most likely to be seen are "assassin bugs" or reduviids (Family Reduviidae), and "damsel bugs" or nabids (Family Nabidae).  These types of predators typically have front legs that are efficient at grasping and holding their prey.

PARASITOIDS

   Parasitoids are insects that feed on or in the tissue of other insects, consuming all or most of their host and eventually killing it.  They are typically small wasps (Order Hymenoptera), or flies (Order Diptera).  Although the adult flies or wasps may be seen occasionally in an orchard, it is much more common to observe the eggs, larvae, or pupae in or on the parasitized pest insect.  Eggs may be laid directly on a host such as the obliquebanded leafroller, or near the host, such as in the mine of a spotted tentiform leafminer.  After the parasitoid consumes the pest, it is not unusual to find the parasitized larvae or eggs of a moth host, or aphids that have been parastized ("mummies").  Exit holes can be seen where the parasitoid adult has emerged from the aphid mummy.

GENERALIST PREDATORS

   There is a diversity of other beneficial species to be found in apple orchards, most of which are rarely seen, but whose feeding habits make them valuable additions to any crop system.  The use of more selective pesticides helps to maintain their numbers and contributes to the level of natural control attainable in commercial fruit plantings.  Among these beneficials are:

   • Spiders (Order Araneae): All spiders are predaceous and feed mainly on insects.  The prey is usually killed by the poison injected into it by the spider's bite.  Different spiders capture their prey in different ways; wolf spiders and jumping spiders forage for and pounce on their prey, the crab spiders lie in wait for their prey on flowers, and the majority of spiders capture their prey in nets or webs.

   • Ants (Family Formicidae): The feeding habits of ants are rather varied.  Some are carnivorous, feeding on other animals or insects (living or dead), some feed on plants, some on fungi, and many feed on sap, nectar, honeydew, and similar substances.  Recent research done in Washington has shown certain species (Formica spp.) of ants to be effective predators of pear psylla.

   • Earwigs (Family Forficulidae): Although these insects may sometimes attack fruit and vegetable crops, those found in apple orchards are probably more likely to be scavengers that feed on a variety of small insects.

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General Info

Coming Pest Events | Pest Focus | Trap Catches | Insects | General Info

REMINDER: CORNELL CENTENNIAL FRUIT FIELD DAYS AT GENEVA

   Cornell University will host the Centennial Fruit Field Days and Equipment Show at the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva, NY on July 27 and 28 from 8:00 am-4:00 pm.  Fruit growers, consultants, and industry personnel are invited to tour field plots and learn about the latest research and extension efforts being carried out by researchers on the Geneva and Ithaca campuses.  The focus will be on all commodities key to New York's $300 million fruit industry: apples, grapes, raspberries, strawberries, peaches, pears, cherries, and nectarines.

   The event will be held on the Station's Fruit and Vegetable Research Farm South, 1097 County Road No. 4, 1 mile west of Pre-Emption Rd. in Geneva, NY. Signs will be posted.  Attendees will be able to select from tours of apples, stone fruits, small fruits, and grapes.  Admission is free and lunch is provided, courtesy of industry sponsors.  Pre-registration is encouraged.

      For sponsorship and exhibitor information, contact Alison DeMarree at 315-589-9698 or Emailto: AMD15@cornell.edu.  More information will be posted as it becomes available.  To pre-register, contact Nancy Long at 315-787-2288 or Emailto: NPL1@cornell.edu.  More information about this event and a complete agenda for both days is available at: http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/pubs/press/2004/040622FruitFieldDays.html

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This material is based upon work supported by Smith Lever funds from the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

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