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June 6, 2005 Volume 14 No. 12 Update on Pest Management and Crop Development

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Upcoming Events

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects

Current DD accumulations
43°F
50°F

(Geneva 1/1-6/6):

700

385

(Geneva 1/1-6/6/2004):

868

510

(Geneva "Normal"):

797

444

(Geneva 6/13 Predicted):

917

554

 

Coming Events:

Ranges:

 

American plum borer 1st flight peak

567-839

278-496

Codling moth 1st flight peak

599-989

325-581

European red mite summer eggs hatch

737-923

424-572

Lesser appleworm 1st flight peak

376-698

185-389

Obliquebanded leafroller pupae present

601-821

328-482

Redbanded leafroller 1st flight subsides

574-894

317-555

Rose leafhopper adult on multiflora rose

689-893

366-498

San Jose scale 1st flight peak

591-735

315-413

Spotted tentiform leafminer 1st flight subsides

651-921

351-551

 

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Trap Catches

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects

TRAP CATCHES (Number/trap/day)
Geneva

5/26

5/31

6/2

6/6

Redbanded Leafroller

0.3

0.9

0.7

0.6

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

1.7

3.1

3.0

3.6

Oriental Fruit Moth

0.0

0.0

0.8

0.5

Lesser Appleworm

0.0

0.0

4.2*

2.3

San Jose Scale

0.0

0.0

2.3*

79.4

Codling Moth

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.3*

American Plum Borer

-

0.5

0.7

1.4

Lesser Peachtree Borer

-

-

-

3.8*

Peachtree Borer

-

-

-

0.0

Pandemis Leafroller

-

-

-

0.1*

Obliquebanded Leafroller

-

-

-

0.0

Highland
(Dick Straub, Peter Jentsch):

5/16

5/23

5/31

6/6

Redbanded Leafroller

2.9

0.6

0.2

0.1

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

-

9.6

15.8

5.8

Oriental Fruit Moth

6.0

1.6

0.3

0.9

Lesser Appleworm

0.6

0.6

0.5

2.5

San Jose Scale

0.0

0.0

0.1*

0.0

Codling Moth

0.0

0.1*

0.1

0.6

Obliquebanded Leafroller

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.3*

* = 1st catch

 

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Pest Focus

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects

Geneva: 
1st Lesser Appleworm trap catch 6/2.
1st San Jose Scale trap catch 6/2.
1st Pandemis Leafroller trap catch today, 6/6. (Expect the
1st Obliquebanded leafroller in 0-4 days.)
1st Lesser Peachtree Borer caught today, 6/6.

Highland:
1st Obliquebanded Leafroller trap catch, 6/6.
Pear Psylla adults present and laying eggs.

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Insects

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects

CLUTTER
MAP

ORCHARD RADAR DIGEST

Geneva Predictions:
Roundheaded Appletree Borer
RAB adult emergence begins: June 2; Peak emergence: June 12.
RAB egglaying begins: June 8. Peak egglaying period roughly: June 26 to July 11.

Codling Moth
Codling moth development as of June 6: 1st generation adult emergence at 35% and 1st generation egg hatch at 0%.
Key codling moth management dates: 1st generation 3% CM egg hatch: June 9 (= target date for first spray where multiple sprays needed to control 1st generation CM).
1st generation 20% CM egg hatch: June 14 (= target date where one spray needed to control 1st generation codling moth).

Obliquebanded Leafroller
1st generation OBLR flight, first trap catch expected: June 11.

Oriental Fruit Moth
Optimum 1st generation second treatment date, if needed: June 5.

San Jose Scale
1st generation SJS crawlers appear: June 20.

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
2nd STLM flight begins around: June 17

Highland Predictions:
Roundheaded Appletree Borer
RAB adult emergence begins: June 1; Peak emergence: June 11.
RAB egglaying begins: June 7. Peak egglaying period roughly: June 24 to July 8.

Codling Moth
Codling moth development as of June 6: 1st generation adult emergence at 50% and 1st generation egg hatch at 2%.
Key codling moth management dates: 1st generation 3% CM egg hatch: June 7 (= target date for first spray where multiple sprays needed to control 1st generation CM).
1st generation 20% CM egg hatch: June 12 (= target date where one spray needed to control 1st generation codling moth).

Obliquebanded Leafroller
1st generation OBLR flight, first trap catch expected: June 9.

Oriental Fruit Moth
Optimum 1st generation second treatment date, if needed: June 2.

San Jose Scale
1st generation SJS crawlers appear: June 17.

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
2nd STLM flight begins around: June 14.

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On Deck

NUMBER ONE FOR TAKEOFF
( Art Agnello Entomology, Geneva )

   Looks like we're actually going to get a summer this year, and last  week's weather delivered the inaugural dose.  Although arthropods respond positively to warm and dry conditions, pest management tends to be rather more straightforward than it is during cool and wet seasons, as things tend to happen on a more predictable schedule.  However, we were something like a week behind normal DD accumulations up until the Memorial Day weekend, so there may still be a bit of catching-up to do.  If there's such a thing as a normal schedule, insects and mites are probably a bit behind it, but that doesn't eliminate those points in time, like about now, when a lot of them might pop up all at once.  The following are updates on some of the more noteworthy participants in this drama.  Dates in parentheses, where present, are the mean date of occurrence in Geneva, according to our recent records.

Plum Curculio (May 25 - scars present)
   Curcs have only so much egg-laying activity programmed into their behavior, and it's directly related to the temperature.  The warmer the post-petal fall period, the quicker they get done, so the warm 7-10 days we have in the long-term forecast could mean that a petal fall plus possibly one additional spray at 1st cover will adequately protect most of the region's orchards until the ovipositing is finished.  We'll keep you posted, but most orchards should definitely receive their petal fall spray this week.  If you additionally have Rosy Apple Aphid colonies active in your trees, consider using Actara now, which has very good activity against both species.

European Apple Sawfly
   Generally confined to the eastern half of the state, the adults will be laying eggs on or near newly set fruitlets starting at petal fall, so the plum curculio applications will do double duty against this pest as well.

Obliquebanded Leafroller (June 10)
   We have yet to catch the first obliquebanded leafroller adult in western N.Y., but the first pandemis leafroller was caught today in Geneva, so it won't be too much longer before the first OBLR moths start showing up.  Depending on the location, larvae can be found now in many stages of development, from the relatively small to possibly the pupal stage in some of the more advanced sites.  This would therefore be an advisable time to hang a pheromone trap in problem apple blocks, to fix the date of first emergence in your specific area.  Recall that we recommend sampling at 600 DD (base 43°F) after the first adult catch, to determine the need and timing for treatment.  It pays to keep an eye on the daily highs and lows for your area if you are doing your own trapping, as it's likely that our "normal" first sampling date of July 5 won't turn out to be necessarily appropriate this year.  In orchards still not too removed from petal fall and containing large larvae, an application of a B.t. product (e.g., Dipel, Deliver) or Intrepid at this time can help diminish the population for better management during the summer.

Stone Fruit Aphids
   Although green peach aphids are not always a serious pest every year, colonies of these greenish, smooth-looking aphids have already started showing up in peach blocks.  They cause curled leaves that may turn yellow or red in severe cases, and more importantly, they are vectors of Plum Pox Virus, which still has not been documented in N.Y., fortunately.  The young aphids begin to hatch about the time of peach bloom and remain on the trees for 2-3 generations, until early summer, when they seek other hosts (mainly vegetable truck crops).  Green peach aphids suck the sap from the new fruits and twigs, and are also found on plum, apricot, cherry, and many ornamental shrubs.  These insects are difficult to control; fortunately, Provado has a stone fruit label, and this would be our recommended option, where needed.  Lannate and Thiodan are alternatives, but are possibly less effective.  Applications are recommended before excessive leaf curling occurs, in order to maximize the spray's effectiveness.  Also, keep an eye out for black cherry aphid in your cherry trees after shuck fall.  If colonies are building up on the foliage, recommended materials include Provado, Sevin and Imidan (tart cherries only).

Cherry Fruit Flies (June 16)
   No adults have been reported caught on sticky board traps yet, but because of the zero tolerance in cherries for insect damage or presence, it's prudent to begin sprays in your cherries now (for this pest as well as for curculio).  Guthion, Imidan (tart cherries only), Sevin, Diazinon or the pyrethroids are all effective treatments.  Sevin and Imidan will also control black cherry aphid.

Lesser Peachtree Borer (May 25)
   The first adult was caught today (June 6) in Geneva.  Remember to get your trunk and scaffold sprays on peaches and cherries during the first 10 days of June if borers are a problem in your blocks.  An effective alternative is Isomate-L for pheromone disruption.  Because of the delayed season, now would not be too late to hang the ties (100-150/acre will disrupt both species -- Peachtree Borer appears about mid-month -- in our region).  This pest increases the severity of Cytospora canker infections in peaches and is often found within the canker; by feeding in the callous tissues, it interferes with the tree's natural defenses against the disease.  Infestations can be determined by the presence of the insect's frass, which resembles sawdust, in the gum exuded from the wound.  In peaches, you can use Lorsban 4E, Thionex, Asana, Ambush, Pounce, or Warrior for this application.  In cherries, use Thionex, Asana, Pounce, Ambush, Warrior or Lorsban 50WP (tarts only) or 4E, as a trunk spray ONLY; do not spray the fruit.

European Red Mite
   Mite populations have been slow to build so far this season, but adults have been noted in some orchards, which means that they'll be laying summer eggs that will hatch into potential problems before long.  The pre-bloom period didn't offer many opportunities for early season oil or miticide applications this year; however, it's not too late to use one of the preventive ovicidal materials such as Savey, Apollo, or Agri-Mek in problem blocks or where you may have noted ERM eggs.  Also, this year, recall that a new miticide has been registered in NYS -- Zeal is a growth regulator that is effective as an ovicide, and also can be used in-season to control threshold populations (1 application permitted per season).

  In situations where European red mite pressure or the crop's sensitivity to them haven't necessarily justified an early season treatment with any of the above options, this is the time of year when a summer oil program also might be considered as an alternative preventive approach, particularly considering this species' slow start from our cool spring weather.  Field research trials conducted in commercial and experimental apple orchards in western N.Y. have shown the effectiveness of using a highly refined oil in a seasonal program to control mites throughout the summer.  Some examples of these products are PureSpray Spray Oil 10E or BioCover UL or PureSpray Green (all from Petro Canada), Stylet-Oil (JMS Flower Farms), and Omni Supreme (an ExxonMobil product formulated using Orchex 796 and distributed in our area by Helena); others are labeled, although we haven't tested all brands.  Note that Sunspray Ultra Fine Spray Oil (Sun Refining & Marketing, Philadelphia) is no longer registered in NYS.

   Our approach is to make three applications, on a preventive schedule, immediately after the bloom period, before mite populations have a chance to build.  The first application can be any time from petal fall to 1-2 weeks later, followed by two additional sprays at 10-14-day intervals.  The oil is not concentrated in the tank, but rather mixed on the basis of a rate per 100 gallons of finish spray solution; in most cases, we recommend 100 gal

 per acre.  A rate of 1-2 gal/100 should maintain control of most moderate populations.  Don't apply without leaving at least a 10-14-day interval before or after a captan spray.

San Jose Scale (June 19 - 1st crawlers)
   Minute SJS adult males emerge in the spring from beneath scale covers on the trees, usually during bloom, and mate.  Perhaps owing to the cool season (and the fact that we've been evicted from our old research orchard with its carefully nurtured pest populations in order to make way for the Ag Tech Park construction), the first catch of males (June 2) came a bit late this year; the traditional 1st catch is May 17.  The females produce live crawlers within 4-6 weeks of mating; these make their way to new sites and insert their mouthparts into the tree, secreting a white waxy covering that eventually darkens to black.  SJS infestations on the bark contribute to an overall decline in tree vigor, growth, and productivity.  Fruit feeding causes distinct red-purple spots that decrease the cosmetic appeal of the fruit.  Insecticidal sprays are most effective when directed against the first generation crawlers, specifically timed for the first and peak crawler activity, which are usually 7-10 days apart. 

   The most reliable method of determining first appearance of the crawlers in your specific area is by putting sticky-tape traps on the tree limb near encrusted areas and checking them at least twice a week, starting about the second week of June.  Alternatively, a degree-day accumulation of 310 (50°F base) from the date of first adult catch has also been shown to be reliable if the degree-days are known with some accuracy.  In the Geneva area, first crawler emergence has tended to occur sometime around mid-June.  The Orchard Radar predictions are for this to occur June 17 in the Hudson Valley and June 20 in the Geneva area.  Lorsban used to be the standard recommended treatment for scale, and since it's no longer labeled for summer use, we're fortunate to have Esteem 35WP available, which is quite effective against this pest.  It should be applied at 4-5 oz/acre at first crawler emergence; a low rate (0.25% or 1 qt/100) of a highly refined summer oil (see above) has been shown to improve penetration and, therefore, control.  The remaining OPs such as Guthion and Imidan, as well as Provado, are alternative options.

Oriental Fruit Moth
   We're calling biofix May 10 in western NY, because that's when the adults first started showing up in our Niagara and Orleans Co. demonstration plots (1st catch in Geneva lagged behind, on May 16).  In problem blocks (i.e., those with a history of more than 1-2% fruit infestation since 2002), the first spray against the first larval brood is recommended at 350-375 DD (base 45°F) from biofix, which corresponds with 50-60% hatch.  The records as of today (courtesy of the NEWA Insect DD Calculator) show the DD accumulations to be: Appleton, 323; Sodus, 355; and Williamson, 331.  Therefore, this week would be a timely window for such a treatment.  If you're applying petal fall sprays, you should be covered by most materials that are effective against plum curculio.  If you're more than 7-10 days past your PF sprays and need something specific against OFM, Assail, Intrepid and Avaunt are recommended options in apples, and Asana or Warrior in peaches.

Pear Psylla
   These insects have also been slow to start this season, but the warm temperatures will doubtless spur the production of summer nymphs.  Particularly if you weren't able to get an oil spray on before bloom, populations of 1-2 per leaf would be an indication of the need for a prudent application of Agri-Mek at this time; alternatively, Assail, Actara, Esteem, Provado, Nexter, Asana and Warrior also have varying degrees of effectiveness against this pest, usually negatively correlated with past history of use.

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This material is based upon work supported by Smith Lever funds from the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Return to top