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July 11, 2005 Volume 14 No. 17 Update on Pest Management and Crop Development

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Upcoming Events

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects

Current DD accumulations
43°F
50°F

(Geneva 1/1-7/11):

1705

1114

(Geneva 1/1-7/11/2004):

1672

1035

(Geneva "Normal"):

1652

1073

(Geneva 7/18 Predicted):

1948

1309

(Highland 1/1-7/11):

1880

1263

 

Coming Events:

Ranges:

 

Apple maggot 1st oviposition punctures

1528-2078

1021-1495

Codling moth 2nd flight begins

1555-2283

999-1529

Comstock mealybug 1st flight subsides

1818-2132

1216-1418

Dogwood borer peak catch

1567-1999

996-1308

Lesser appleworm 2nd flight begins

1341-1959

873-1287

Redbanded leafroller 2nd flight peak

1517-2025

959-1357

San Jose scale 2nd flight begins

1549-1913

1000-1294

Obliquebanded leafroller 1st flight subsides

1613-2131

1034-1434

Oriental fruit moth 2nd flight peak

1378-2086

865-1415

Spotted tentiform leafminer 2nd flight peak

1369-1835

854-1212

STLM 2nd gen. tissue feeders present

1378-2035

913-1182

 

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Trap Catches

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects

TRAP CATCHES (Number/trap/day)
Geneva

6/30

7/5

7/8

7/11

Redbanded Leafroller

0.5

2.3*

0.7

3.2

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

-

5.8

19.3

18.2

Oriental Fruit Moth

0.0

0.4*

0.0

0.0

Lesser Appleworm

0.2

0.0

0.2

0.0

San Jose Scale

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Codling Moth

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

American Plum Borer

0.2

0.2

0.7*

1.0

Lesser Peachtree Borer

1.5

0.6

1.2

1.7

Peachtree Borer

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

Pandemis Leafroller

0.5

0.1

0.0

0.0

Obliquebanded Leafroller

0.2

0.4

0.5

2.0

Apple maggot

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Highland (Dick Straub, Peter Jentsch):

6/20

6/27

7/5

7/11

Redbanded Leafroller

0.0

0.8

4.1*

3.2

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

55.6

103.1

127.3

87.6

Oriental Fruit Moth

0.1

0.6

0.4

0.6

Lesser Appleworm

0.9

0.8

0.1

0.5

Codling Moth

0.4

0.4

0.3

0.2

Obliquebanded Leafroller

0.4

0.4

3.2

2.3

Apple maggot

0.0

0.0

0.1*

0.1

* = 1st catch

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Pest Focus

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects

Geneva: 
1st apple maggot adult caught on odor-baited red sphere trap on 7/8.
American plum borer 2nd flight beginning.
Degree days (base 43°F) since first Obliquebanded Leafroller trap catch = 795.
Degree days (base 43°F) since Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 2nd flight began (6/23) = 552.

Highland:
San Jose scale black cap stage present on shoots and fruit.
Degree days (base 50°F) since first Codling Moth trap catch = 976.
Degree days (base 45°·F) since first Oriental Fruit Moth trap catch = 1318.
Degree days (base 50°F) since first San Jose Scale trap catch = 898.

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Insects

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects

ON THE RADIO

ORCHARD RADAR DIGEST

Geneva Predictions:
Roundheaded Appletree Borer
Peak egglaying period roughly: June 24 to July 5.
Peak hatch roughly: July 9 to July 25.

Dogwood Borer
First egg hatch roughly: June 27. Peak hatch roughly: July 29.

Codling Moth
Codling moth development as of July 11: 1st generation adult emergence at 100% and 1st generation egg hatch at 92%.

Lesser Appleworm
2nd LAW flight begins around: July 6.

Obliquebanded Leafroller
Where waiting to sample late instar OBLR larvae to determine need for treatment is an option, or to check on results from earlier sprays: Optimum sample date for late instar summer generation OBLR larvae: July 5.
If first OBLR late instar larvae sample is below threshold, date for confirmation follow-up: July 9.

Oriental Fruit Moth
Optimum 2nd generation - second treatment date, if needed: July 14.

Redbanded Leafroller
Peak catch and approximate start of egg hatch: July 11.

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
Rough guess when 2nd generation sap-feeding mines begin showing: July 6.
Optimum first sample date for 2nd generation STLM sapfeeding mines:
July 13.
Second optimized sample date for 2nd generation STLM sapfeeding mines, if needed: July 18.
Third optimized sample date for 2nd generation STLM sapfeeding mines, if needed: July 29

Highland Predictions:
Roundheaded Appletree Borer
RAB peak egglaying period roughly: June 23 to July 5.
Peak hatch roughly: July 8 to July 25.

Dogwood Borer
First egg hatch roughly: June 26. Peak hatch roughly: July 28.

Codling Moth
Codling moth development as of July 11: 2nd generation adult emergence at 2% and 1st generation egg hatch at 99%.

Lesser Appleworm
2nd LAW flight begins around: July 5.

Oriental Fruit Moth
Optimum 2nd generation - second treatment date, if needed: July 12.

Redbanded Leafroller
Peak catch and approximate start of egg hatch: July 9.

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
Optimum first sample date for 2nd generation STLM sapfeeding mines:
July 8.
Second optimized sample date for 2nd generation STLM sapfeeding mines, if needed: July 13.
Third optimized sample date for 2nd generation STLM sapfeeding mines, if needed: July 23

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SOME'RE GOOD

STEALTH FIGHTERS
(Art Agnello, Entomology, Geneva )

   There are many insects present in apple orchards that provide a benefit to growers by feeding on pest species.  It is important that growers and orchard managers be able to recognize these natural enemies, so that they are not mistaken for pests.  The best way to conserve beneficial insects is to spray only when necessary, and to use materials that are less toxic to them (see Table 5 and Table 12 of the Recommends).  This brief review, taken from IPM Tree-Fruit Fact Sheet No. 18 covers the major beneficial insects that are likely to be seen in N.Y. orchards, concentrating on the most commonly seen life stages.  Factsheet No. 23, Predatory Mites

CECIDOMYIID LARVAE (Aphidoletes aphidimyza)

   This fly (Family Cecidomyiidae) is an aphid predator, and overwinters as a larva or pupa in a cocoon.  Adults emerge from this cocoon, mate, and females lay eggs among aphid colonies.  The adults are delicate, resembling mosquitoes, and are not likely to be seen.  The eggs are very small (about 0.3 mm or 1/85 in. long) and orange.  They hatch into small, brightly colored, orange larvae that can be found eating aphids on the leaf surface.  These predacious larvae are present from mid-June throughout the summer.  There are 3-6 generations per year.  In addition to aphids, they also feed on soft-bodied scales and mealybugs.

SYRPHID FLY LARVAE (Family Syrphidae)

   The Family Syrphidae contains the "hover flies", so named because of the adults' flying behavior.  They are brightly colored with yellow and black stripes, resembling bees.  Syrphids overwinter as pupae in the soil.  In the spring, the adults emerge, mate, and lay single, long whitish eggs on foliage or bark, from early spring through midsummer, usually among aphid colonies.  One female lays several eggs.  After hatching, the larvae feed on aphids by piercing their bodies and sucking the fluids, leaving shriveled, blackened aphid cadavers.  These predacious larvae are shaped cylindrically and taper toward the head.  There are 5-7 generations per year.  Syrphid larvae feed on aphids, and may also feed on scales and caterpillars.

LADYBIRD BEETLES (Family Coccinellidae)

   • Stethorus punctum: This ladybird beetle is an important predator of European red mite in parts of the northeast, particularly in Pennsylvania, and has been observed intermittently in the Hudson Valley of N.Y., and occasionally in western N.Y.  Stethorus overwinters as an adult in the "litter" and ground cover under trees, or in nearby protected places.  The adults are rounded, oval, uniformly shiny black, and are about 1.3-1.5 mm (1/16 in.) long.  Eggs are laid mostly on the undersides of the leaves, near the primary veins, at a density of 1-10 per leaf.  They are small and pale white, and about 0.3-0.4 mm (1/85 in.) long.  Eggs turn black just prior to hatching.  The larva is gray to blackish with numerous hairs, but becomes reddish as it matures, starting on the edges and completing the change just prior to pupation.  There are 3 generations per year in south-central Pennsylvania, with peak periods of larval activity in mid-May, mid-June and mid-August.  The pupa is uniformly black, small and flattened, and is attached to the leaf.

   • Other Ladybird Beetles: Ladybird beetles are very efficient predators of aphids, scales and mites.  Adults are generally hemisphere-shaped, and brightly colored or black, ranging in size from 0.8 to over 8 mm (0.03-0.3 in.).  They overwinter in sheltered places and become active in the spring.  Eggs are laid on the undersides of leaves, usually near aphid colonies, and are typically yellow, spindle-shaped, and stand on end.  Females may lay hundreds of eggs.  The larvae have well-developed legs and resemble miniature alligators, and are brightly colored, usually black with yellow.  The pupal case can often be seen attached to a leaf or branch.  There are usually 1-2 generations per year.  One notable species that is evident now is Coccinella septempunctata, the sevenspotted lady beetle, often referred to as C-7.  This insect, which is large and reddish-orange with seven distinct black spots, was intentionally released into N.Y. state beginning in 1977, and has become established as an efficient predator in most parts of the state.

LACEWINGS (Family Chrysopidae)

   Adult lacewings are green or brown insects with net-like, delicate wings, long antennae, and prominent eyes.  The larvae are narrowly oval with two sickle-shaped mouthparts, which are used to pierce the prey and extract fluids.  Often the larvae are covered with "trash", which is actually the bodies of their prey and other debris.  Lacewings overwinter as larvae in cocoons, inside bark cracks or in leaves on the ground.  In the spring, adults become active and lay eggs on the trunks and branches.  These whitish eggs are laid singly and can be seen connected to the leaf by a long, threadlike "stem".  Lacewings feed on aphids, leafhoppers, scales, mites, and eggs of Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths).

TRUE BUGS (Order Hemiptera)

   There are many species of "true bugs" (Order Hemiptera) such as tarnished plant bug, that feed on plants, but a number of them are also predators of pest species.  The ones most likely to be seen are "assassin bugs" or reduviids (Family Reduviidae), and "damsel bugs" or nabids (Family Nabidae).  These types of predators typically have front legs that are efficient at grasping and holding their prey.

PARASITOIDS

   Parasitoids are insects that feed on or in the tissue of other insects, consuming all or most of their host and eventually killing it.  They are typically small wasps (Order Hymenoptera), or flies (Order Diptera).  Although the adult flies or wasps may be seen occasionally in an orchard, it is much more common to observe the eggs, larvae, or pupae in or on the parasitized pest insect.  Eggs may be laid directly on a host such as the obliquebanded leafroller, or near the host, such as in the mine of a spotted tentiform leafminer.  After the parasitoid consumes the pest, it is not unusual to find the parasitized larvae or eggs of a moth host, or aphids that have been parastized ("mummies").  Exit holes can be seen where the parasitoid adult has emerged from the aphid mummy.

GENERALIST PREDATORS

   There is a diversity of other beneficial species to be found in apple orchards, most of which are rarely seen, but whose feeding habits make them valuable additions to any crop system.  The use of more selective pesticides helps to maintain their numbers and contributes to the level of natural control attainable in commercial fruit plantings.  Among these beneficials are:

   • Spiders (Order Araneida): All spiders are predaceous and feed mainly on insects.  The prey is usually killed by the poison injected into it by the spider's bite.  Different spiders capture their prey in different ways; wolf spiders and jumping spiders forage for and pounce on their prey, the crab spiders lie in wait for their prey on flowers, and the majority of spiders capture their prey in nets or webs.

   • Ants (Family Formicidae): The feeding habits of ants are rather varied.  Some are carnivorous, feeding on other animals or insects (living or dead), some feed on plants, some on fungi, and many feed on sap, nectar, honeydew, and similar substances.  Recent research done in Washington has shown certain species (Formica spp.) of ants to be effective predators of pear psylla.

   • Earwigs (Family Forficulidae): Although these insects may sometimes attack fruit and vegetable crops, those found in apple orchards are probably more likely to be scavengers that feed on a variety of small insects.


This material is based upon work supported by Smith Lever funds from the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Return to top