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July 18, 2005 Volume 14 No. 18 Update on Pest Management and Crop Development

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Upcoming Events

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects

Current DD accumulations
43°F
50°F

(Geneva 1/1-7/18):

1953

1313

(Geneva 1/1-7/18/2004):

1852

1166

(Geneva "Normal"):

1843

1222

(Geneva 7/25 Predicted):

2174

1486

(Highland 1/1-7/18):

2119

1453

 

Coming Events:

Ranges:

 

American plum borer 2nd flight peak

1953-2415

1305-1677

Apple maggot 1st oviposition punctures

1528-2078

1021-1495

Codling moth 2nd flight begins

1555-2283

999-1529

Comstock mealybug 1st flight subsides

1818-2132

1216-1418

Redbanded leafroller 2nd flight peak

1517-2025

959-1357

Obliquebanded leafroller 1st flight subsides

1613-2131

1034-1434

Oriental fruit moth 2nd flight peak

1378-2086

865-1415

STLM 2nd gen. tissue feeders present

1378-2035

913-1182

STLM 2nd flight subsides

2006-2394

1321-1673

 

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Trap Catches

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects

TRAP CATCHES (Number/trap/day)
Geneva

7/8

7/11

7/14

7/18

Redbanded Leafroller

0.7

3.2

2.0

1.4

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

19.3

18.2

33.8

7.3

Oriental Fruit Moth

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1*

Lesser Appleworm

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.4*

San Jose Scale

0.0

0.0

0.0

33.8*

Codling Moth

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

American Plum Borer

0.7*

1.0

0.2

0.4

Lesser Peachtree Borer

1.2

1.7

0.7

0.3

Peachtree Borer

0.0

0.2

0.0

0.0

Obliquebanded Leafroller

0.5

2.0

0.7

0.0

Apple maggot

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Highland (Dick Straub, Peter Jentsch):

6/27

7/5

7/11

7/18

Redbanded Leafroller

0.8

4.1*

3.2

2.8

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

103.1

127.3

87.6

71.9

Oriental Fruit Moth

0.6

0.4

0.6

0.9

Lesser Appleworm

0.8

0.1

0.5

0.4

Codling Moth

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.3

Obliquebanded Leafroller

0.4

3.2

2.3

0.4

Apple maggot

0.0

0.1*

0.1

0.1

* = 1st catch

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Pest Focus

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects

Geneva: 
San Jose Scale 2nd flight beginning.
American Plum Borer 2nd flight beginning.
Degree days (base 43F) since Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 2nd flight began (6/23) = 800.

Highland:
San Jose Scale black cap stage present on shoots and fruit.
Degree days (base 50F) since first Codling Moth trap catch = 1166.
Degree days (base 45F) since first Oriental Fruit Moth trap catch = 1543.

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Insects

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects

LINE OF SIGHT

ORCHARD RADAR DIGEST

Geneva Predictions:
Roundheaded Appletree Borer
Peak hatch roughly: July 9 to July 25.

Dogwood Borer
Peak hatch roughly: July 29.

Codling Moth
Codling moth development as of July 18: 2nd generation adult emergence at 3% and 1st generation egg hatch at 99%.

Obliquebanded Leafroller
[NEWA Apple Pest DD calculations: Estimated date of OLBR 1st summer generation 100% egg hatch: July 19.]

Oriental Fruit Moth
[NEWA Apple Pest DD calculations: OFM 2nd summer generation estimated egg hatch as of July 18 = 50%.]

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
Optimum first sample date for 2nd generation STLM sapfeeding mines:
July 12.
Second optimized sample date for 2nd generation STLM sapfeeding mines, if needed: July 18.

Highland Predictions:
Roundheaded Appletree Borer
Peak hatch roughly: July 8 to July 25.

Dogwood Borer
Peak hatch roughly: July 28.

Codling Moth
Codling moth development as of July 18: 2nd generation adult emergence at 13% and 2nd generation egg hatch at 1%.
2nd generation 7% CM egg hatch: July 24 (= target date for first spray where multiple sprays needed to control 2nd generation CM).

Obliquebanded Leafroller
[NEWA Apple Pest DD calculations: Estimated date of OLBR 1st summer generation 100% egg hatch: July 14.]

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
Second optimized sample date for 2nd generation STLM sapfeeding mines, if needed: July 14.
Third optimized sample date for 2nd generation STLM sapfeeding mines, if needed: July 23

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INSECT BITES

HOT WINGS
(Art Agnello, Entomology, Geneva )

Our Fill of Psylla

      Reports of problem pear psylla populations are common around the state.  This perennial menace continues to be one of the most difficult insect pests to deal with in any of the fruit crops, mainly because of its tendency to quickly develop tolerance or resistance to insecticides to which it's exposed, irrespective of their mode of action. 

   The problem with psylla in general is that, once they develop resistance to a material (or sometimes a class of materials, like pyrethroids), it's relatively "stable" -- or in other words, avoiding that a.i. for a period of time usually doesn't result in their becoming susceptible again.  Most NY populations developed at least tolerance if not resistance to Mitac years ago, so I don't hold out a lot of hope that this material will give good results in most cases.  The same thing applies to pyrethroids -- depending on field history, many populations started to become problematic in response to programs that used products like Asana (or Pydrin), Ambush or Pounce as early season (white bud) strategies in combination with prebloom oil, and when newer pyrethroids became available, it was a gamble whether they would respond; often they didn't.

   According to efficacy trials conducted in other pear regions such as Oregon, Michigan and Pennsylvania, Assail and Actara probably offer some of the best potential activity against psylla for the time being; however, these products are admittedly more expensive and harder to justify given the current slow pear market.  This is a difficult problem because we don't have many alternatives, inexpensive or otherwise, but for growers who are intent on going the "alternatives" route, I'm obliged to restate my misgivings here about insecticidal soap (M-Pede).  It does work against any psylla that it hits, but doesn't have any residual activity, and there have been phytotoxicity and fruit marking issues with this option in the past, along with its relatively high cost.  I'd rather advise weekly sprays of a summer oil at 1-2%, at least as a 'war of attrition' approach (this has worked better in my field trials when started earlier, before threshold numbers are reached), but 3-4 applications will definitely reduce numbers of eggs and nymphs.

Apple Maggot

   Trap catches in the Hudson Valley already began reaching threshold a couple of weeks ago, and those in western NY started out with some impressive numbers last week, so the indication is this will be a high population season around the state.  If you aren't monitoring in specific orchards and haven't yet applied a protective spray against AM (and aren't using SpinTor for OBLR), prudence would suggest some attention to this pest.  Hanging a few volatile-baited sphere traps on the edge of susceptible plantings can provide a world of insight on when (and whether) immigrating flies are posing a threat.  Growers on a SpinTor program should be somewhere between the first and second spray of this material for leafrollers, which will provide protection against moderate AM pressure.  For those not using OP cover sprays, Assail provides excellent control of apple maggot as well as internal leps.

Western Flower Thrips

   This formerly rare pest has been a recent cause of damage to nectarines and peaches in the Hudson Valley.  Originally limited to western North America, this is now a cosmopolitan species that is a key pest in the greenhouse production of flowers and vegetables.  Apparently, drought conditions and high temperatures encourage damaging populations that can affect stone fruit crops, particularly nectarines and peaches.  The following information is taken from the PA Tree Fruit Production Guide: "...just prior to and during harvest,...adults move from alternate weed or crop hosts to fruit.  [They] feed on the fruit surface in protected sites, such as in the stem end, the suture, under leaves and branches, and between fruit.  Feeding ...results in silver stipling or patches.  Silvering injury is particularly obvious on highly colored varieties.  Because Lannate has a short preharvest interval (4 days), it can be used to control thrips during harvest."  Also, SpinTor can be used within 14 days of harvest.  An application after the first harvest may prevent subsequent losses; however, an additional application may be needed if thrips pressure is severe.

Mites

   Lots of eggs are present on the foliage right now, and with our sultry temperatures, the period from egg deposit to hatch and multiply is a very short one.  A number of orchards we have seen are in trouble from European red mites so far, but also keep in mind the potential for two-spotted mite, which can reach alarming levels in a hurry.  Inspect your leaves using the 5 mite/leaf form of the Recommends, and be aware that two-spot populations increase more quickly than ERM, so be conservative in your interpretations.  Zeal is a good new option to keep in mind if treatment is needed; Acramite tends to be more effective against TSSM than ERM, and Nexter works better against red mites than it does on two-spots, but the main advice is to get out there and look at your foliage.


This material is based upon work supported by Smith Lever funds from the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Return to top