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August 1 , 2005 Volume 14 No. 20 Update on Pest Management and Crop Development

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Upcoming Events

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects | General Info

Current DD accumulations
43°F
50°F

(Geneva 1/1-8/1):

2372

1636

(Geneva 1/1-8/1/2004):

2215

1431

(Geneva "Normal"):

2219

1506

(Geneva 8/8 Predicted):

2584

1798

(Highland 1/1-8/1):

2576

1813

 

Coming Events:

Ranges:

 

American plum borer 2nd flight peak

1953-2415

1305-1677

Apple maggot flight peak

2143-2579

1455-1763

Codling moth 2nd flight peak

2005-2835

1337-1977

Comstock mealybug 2nd gen crawlers present

2234-2624

1658-1737

Lesser appleworm 2nd flight peak

2315-3295

1554-2292

Redbanded leafroller 2nd flight subsides

2167-2687

1466-1862

Obliquebanded leafroller 2nd flight begins

2270-2654

1525-1837

Oriental fruit moth 3rd flight begins

2337-2743

1597-1893

Spotted tentiform leafminer 3rd flight begins

2277-2637

1518-1866

 

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Trap Catches

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects | General Info

TRAP CATCHES (Number/trap/day)
Geneva

7/21

7/25

7/28

8/1

Redbanded Leafroller

2.3

1.6

0.7

0.3

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

9.8

10.0

5.7

6.1

Oriental Fruit Moth

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

Lesser Appleworm

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

San Jose Scale

178

63

100

22.5

Codling Moth

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

American Plum Borer

1.0

0.4

1.3

0.4

Lesser Peachtree Borer

0.3

0.9

0.5

1.3

Peachtree Borer

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

Obliquebanded Leafroller

0.0

0.3

0.0

0.1

Apple maggot

0.0

0.3

0.0

0.0

Highland (Dick Straub, Peter Jentsch):

7/11

7/18

7/25

8/1

Redbanded Leafroller

3.2

2.8

1.0

0.2

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

87.6

71.9

32.4

43.1

Oriental Fruit Moth

0.6

0.9

0.2

0.9

Lesser Appleworm

0.5

0.4

0.9

0.9

Codling Moth

0.2

0.3

0.1

1.1

Obliquebanded Leafroller

2.3

0.4

0.7

0.5

Apple maggot

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

* = 1st catch

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Pest Focus

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects | General Info

Geneva: 
Degree days (base 43F) since Spotted Tentiform Leafminer 2nd
flight began (6/23) = 1218.

Highland:
Apple Maggot oviposition observed on early varieties (Ginger Gold and Pristine).
San Jose Scale 2nd gen crawlers emerging, adult males present.
First of 2 Hudson Valley applications should begin for 2nd generation.
Degree days (base 50F) since first Codling Moth trap catch = 1526.
Degree days (base 45F) since first Oriental Fruit Moth trap catch = 1972.

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Insects

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects | General Info

Above Ground Level

ORCHARD RADAR DIGEST

Geneva Predictions:
Dogwood Borer
Peak hatch roughly: July 29.

Codling Moth
Codling moth development as of August 1: 2nd generation adult emergence at 39% and 2nd generation egg hatch at 8%.
2nd generation 7% CM egg hatch: July 31 (= target date for first spray where multiple sprays needed to control 2nd generation CM).
2nd generation 30% CM egg hatch: August 9 (= target date where one spray needed to control 2nd generation codling moth).

Oriental Fruit Moth
[NEWA Apple Pest DD calculations: OFM 2nd summer generation estimated egg hatch as of August 1 = >90%.]

White Apple Leafhopper
2nd generation WAL found on apple foliage: August 1.

Highland Predictions:
Codling Moth
Codling moth development as of August 1: 2nd generation adult emergence at 66% and 2nd generation egg hatch at 27%.
2nd generation 30% CM egg hatch: August 2 (= target date where one spray needed to control 2nd generation codling moth).

White Apple Leafhopper
2nd generation WAL found on apple foliage: July 31.

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INSECT BITES

LYING IN THE WEEDS
(Art Agnello, Entomology, Geneva )

   Now that the various crops are most of the way to being made, it's normal to begin paying less attention to the potential pests threatening them, but there are still one or two to be aware of, including some that have been covered in previous issues.

European Red Mite
   I've been surprised to see and hear of fewer mite outbreaks during this hot and dry period than I would have expected, but we're not quite done yet.  Keep an eye on your foliar populations, using the 7.5 motiles-per-leaf threshold that we recommend during August as a hedge against the need for any late season miticide applications.  Twospotted spider mite has also shown up in several spots, and this species has a tendency to increase its numbers even more rapidly than ERM.

Apple Maggot
   This week traditionally sees the heaviest flight of this pest in commercial orchards, so diligent attention to either your protective sprays (in blocks that are perennially high-population areas) or monitoring traps (in blocks that are hard to predict) would be advised.

Comstock Mealybug
   In pears especially, this is the period of greatest migration of 2nd generation nymphs into the fruit calyx, where they will be concealed until exposed at the packinghouse by the inspector's knife.  Blocks with a history should receive a protective spray of Actara, Assail, Diazinon, or Provado.

Woolly Apple Aphid
   If you failed to prevent their migration from the lower trunk areas in June, there will be aerial colonies evident in canopies now.  This is a difficult pest to control completely, but now will be better than later in the month.  The best material we have available (still) is Diazinon; Thiodan/Thionex is another, albeit less effective, option.

Oriental Fruit Moth
   The earliest feeding injury from the second generation larvae is starting to become noticeable in problem blocks (apples and peaches).  Check the Recommends for recommended materials in the respective crops if you elect to apply a designated spray for these internal worms.

Dock Sawfly
   This one always sneaks in during the waning days of summer. Following is a repeat of our annual write-up on this pest:

   Before and during apple harvest in recent years, a number of growers and fieldmen have been unpleasantly surprised by the appearance of neat little (2 mm) holes bored into the side of their fruit, similar in appearance to those caused by a stem puncture.  Although graders sometimes attribute this damage to apple maggot or European corn borer, cutting open these apples reveals a bright green worm with a light brown head, not feeding but lying inactive, in the burrow extending in from each hole.  These are larvae of the dock sawfly, Ametastegia glabrata, a highly sporadic but nonetheless well documented apple pest that has been known to show up in our area since 1908.

   Dock sawfly probably confines its feeding almost entirely to plants belonging to the buckwheat family (Polygonaceae), including numerous docks and sorrels, the knotweeds and bindweeds, or else wild buckwheat or alfalfa.  In feeding on any of these plants, the larvae devour the leaf tissue and the smaller veins, eating out irregular holes in the leaves.  Ordinarily, the midribs and the larger veins are untouched.  This insect should not be confused with the related European apple sawfly, Hoplocampa testudinea, which has a whitish larva that lives and feeds in young apples, particularly prevalent in the eastern apple regions of N.Y.

   Injury to apples by the dock sawfly is known to occur generally in the late summer and early fall, when the fruit is approaching maturity and the sawfly is searching for an overwintering site.  The greater hardness of immature apples probably deters the larvae from burrowing into these, so although 4 generations per year have been identified, only the last one or two are of concern to apple growers.  The injury to apples consists externally of the small round holes bored by the larvae, which after a few days show a slightly sunken, brownish ring around them and occasionally may be surrounded by a larger discolored halo.  These holes may occur anywhere on the surface, but are most numerous around the calyx and stem ends, or at a point where the apple touches a leaf or another apple, since it is easier for the larva to obtain a foothold here.  Inside, the injury is usually more serious, since the larva often burrows to the core and usually hollows out a pupal cell somewhat larger than itself.  Apples may have three or four, or sometimes even eight, holes in them of varying depths, but contain only one or two worms.

   Since the dock sawfly does not feed upon any part of the apple tree, but must live on the above-mentioned succulent weeds, it becomes an apple pest only where these plants are growing in or around the orchard.  There is little danger from this insect in orchards where the food plants don't exist.  Likewise, the possibility of the larvae coming into the orchard from neighboring meadows, ditch banks, or roadsides is slight, for the larvae are incapable of finding their way over any extent of bare soil.  The adults, though active, are not strong fliers, and it is not possible for the insect to travel far in this stage.  Now would be a good time to assess the weed situation in your orchard and make plans for such selective herbicide applications as may be appropriate regarding this insect.  Even though common wisdom says this sawfly is a pest only every 10-12 years, this is only an average estimation, and it's not a bad idea to anticipate the unexpected when hardly any season is considered to be "average".

(Information adapted from Newcomer, E. J. 1916. The dock false-worm: An apple pest.  USDA Bull. 265, 40 pp.)

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General Info

Upcoming Pest Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects | General Info

COME ONE, COME ALL

SEPTEMBER FIELD TOUR - 1ST NOTICE

   We're a little more than a month away from the annual N.Y. Fruit Pest Control Field Day, which will take place during Labor Day week on Sept. 8 and 9, as dictated by tradition.  As we have done recently in order to accommodate participants who may wish to attend other area tours earlier in the week, the dates fall on the Thursday and Friday of the week, with the Geneva installment taking place first (Thursday Sept. 8), and the Hudson Valley installment on the second day (Friday Sept. 9).  Activities will commence in Geneva on the 8th, with registration, coffee, etc., in the lobby of Barton Lab at 8:30 am.  The tour will proceed to the orchards to view plots and preliminary data from field trials involving new fungicides, miticides, and insecticides on tree fruits and grapes.  It is anticipated that the tour of field plots will be completed by noon.  On the 9th, participants will register at the Hudson Valley Laboratory starting at 8:30, after which we will view and discuss results from field trials on apples.


This material is based upon work supported by Smith Lever funds from the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Return to top