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June 18, 2007 Volume 16 No. 14 Update on Pest Management and Crop Development
 

 
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Scaffolds 07 index

Upcoming Events
Current DD accumulations
43°F
50°F

(Geneva 1/1-6/18):

1090

683

(Geneva 1/1-6/18/2006):

1089

620

(Geneva "Normal" 1/1-6/18):

1076

638

(Geneva 1/1-6/25/2007, predicted):

1288

832

(Highland 3/1-6/18/07):

1078

712

 

Coming Events:

Ranges:

 

American plum borer 1st flight subsiding

1169-1553

702-1032

Black cherry fruit fly 1st catch

702-934

380-576

Cherry fruit fly 1st catch

650-1500

424-806

Codling moth 1st flight peak

529-1326

325-581

Comstock mealybug 1st adult catch

1308-1554

809-1015

Dogwood borer 1st flight subsides

1296-1946

808-1252

Lesser appleworm 1st flight subsides

961-1471

578-940

Obliquebanded leafroller 1st flight peak

900-1322

534-834

Oriental fruit moth 2nd flight starts

1272-1564

784-1020

Peachtree borer 1st catch

565-1557

443-837

Pear psylla 2nd brood hatch

992-1200

584-750

San Jose scale 1st generation crawlers present

1033-1215

619-757

Spotted tentiform leafminer 2nd flight starts 954-1184 562-738

 

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Trap Catches

Upcoming Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects | General Info

Geneva

6/4

6/7

6/11

6/14

Redbanded Leafroller

0.4

0.0

0.3

0.0

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

1.8

0.5

0.6

0.0

Oriental Fruit Moth

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

Codling Moth

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Lesser Appleworm

3.9

0.5

0.3

0.0

San Jose scale

3.8

0.8

0.0

0.0

American Plum Borer

0.0

0.3

0.3

0.2

Lesser Peachtree Borer

1.5

0.2

0.9

1.0

Pandemis Leafroller

0.0

0.2*

0.3

0.2

Obliquebanded Leafroller

0.0

0.0

0.4*

1.2

Dogwood Borer

-

0.0

-

0.0

 

 

 

 

 

Highland (Peter Jentsch)

5/29

6/4

6/11

6/18

Redbanded Leafroller

0.0

-

0.0

0.0

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

3.6

2.8

8.1

16.3

Oriental Fruit Moth

0.0

0.0

0.1*

0.1

Codling Moth

0.9

8.3

2.4

1.2

Lesser Appleworm

4.6

10.4

4.5

2.6

Obliquebanded Leafroller

-

0.5*

2.4

1.4

Variegated Leafroller

-

-

0.9*

0.4

* = 1st catch

 

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Pest Focus

Upcoming Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects | General Info

Highland: Pear Rust Mites observed on foliage

 

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Insects

Upcoming Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects | General Info

BILL OF FARE

ORCHARD RADAR DIGEST

Geneva Predictions:
Roundheaded Appletree Borer and Dogwood Borer
Peak emergence: June 7.
Peak egglaying period roughly: June 20 to July 5.
First RAB eggs hatch rougly: June 17; peak hatch roughly: July 5 to July 25.
First Dogwood borer egg hatch roughly: June 24.

Codling Moth
Codling moth development as of June 18: 1st generation adult emergence at 91% and 1st generation egg hatch at 54%.

Obliquebanded Leafroller
Where waiting to sample late instar OBLR larvae is not an option (= where OBLR is known to be a problem, and will be managed with insecticide against young larvae):
Early egg hatch and optimum date for initial application of B.t., Intrepid, SpinTor or other insecticide with comparable efficacy against OBLR (with follow-up applications as needed): June 25.

Oriental Fruit Moth
2nd generation flight begins around: June 27.

Redbanded Leafroller
2nd flight begins around: June 28.

San Jose Scale
1st generation crawlers appear: June 16.

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
2nd flight begins around: June 13.
Rough guess of when 2nd generation sap-feeding mines begin showing: July 2.

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ARE WE THERE YET?

MODEL BUILDING

Insect model degree day accumulations:

Codling Moth (targeted spray application at newly hatching larvae, predicted at 250-360 DD base 50°F after biofix; follow up in 10-14 days.  The treatment period for the 2nd generation starts at 1260 DD):

Location

Biofix

DD (as of 6/18)

Clintondale

May 14

547

Geneva

May 17

495

Sodus

May 17

435

Ithaca

May 24

412

Lansing

May 24

452

Albion

May 25

(missing data)

Williamson

May 25

410

Appleton (South)

May 25

438

Appleton (North)

May 25

393

Waterport

May 28

421

Obliquebanded Leafroller (targeted spray application at newly hatching larvae, predicted at 360 DD base 43°F after biofix):

Location

Biofix

DD (as of 6/18)

Highland

6/1

407

Clintondale

6/4

318

Albion

6/7 (est'd)

224

Sodus

6/9

211

Appleton

6/10 (est'd)

225

Williamson

6/10 (est'd)

213

Geneva

6/11

204

Lansing

6/11

197

Ithaca

6/11

174

[NOTE: Consult our mini expert system for arthropod pest management, the
Apple Pest Degree Day Calculator:
http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ipm/specware/newa/appledd.php
Find accumulated degree days between dates with the
Degree Day Calculator:
http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ipm/specware/newa/
Powered by the NYS IPM Program’s NEWA weather data and the Baskerville-Emin formula]

 

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SNAKE HUNTING

MUCH OBLIQUED
(Peter Jentsch, Entomology, Highland)

   Many growers have been targeting the overwintering generation of the obliquebanded leafroller by using materials specific for this insect.  As you know, this insect overwinters as a larva that emerges during the pre-bloom period of apple and begins feeding on blossoms and developing fruit.  Applications of Lorsban pre-bloom or at petal fall, Intrepid, the Bts or one of the pyrethroids at petal fall will have reduced both the damage to fruit and will have some impact on subsequent summer generations.  There are two additional generations that will need both observation and management this season in most Hudson Valley orchards.

   We are approaching the period of the season when the obliquebanded leafroller summer generation larvae will be hatching from recently laid eggs.  Once they hatch, they will move onto foliage and fruit to begin feeding.  In general, the overwintering populations have been relatively low to moderate this year, but as we experienced last year, low overwintering populations are not indicative of low summer populations, as OBLR often move into orchards from abandoned or poorly managed blocks.

   We caught our first adult moth on the 1st of June at the HVL.  This event, which we call the biofix, triggers the degree-day based model to predict the first hatch of the larvae, which occurs at 360 degree days from the beginning of the adult flight.  As of June 11th, we have accumulated 231 degree days toward our 360 DD predicting first hatch of OBLR.  The predicted date of hatch at the HVL is Saturday, June 16th.

   At this point in time it goes without saying that the summer generation of OBLR, which has become resistant to the organophosphate azinphos-methyl, has caused considerable damage to the NYS apple crop over the past ten years, and in most HV orchard blocks the fruit damage has well exceeded 10% in years when the insect has been difficult to manage.  It will require diligent and repeated management efforts to prevent fruit damage in orchards that suffered losses in previous years.

   Varieties with clustered fruit such as Cortland, varieties with very short stems such as Macoun, and varieties with tight leaf spacing near the fruit such as spur Red Delicious, are more susceptible to OBLR infestations, due in part to the protective habitat these varieties provide.  The 2005–06 packout should be used as a guide to blocks that will need more emphasis on OBLR management.

   Many of the newer materials are very effective against OBLR.  They are more effective when applied just as the larvae begin to hatch in their early stage of development.  These include SpinTor or Entrust, Proclaim, Intrepid, the Bt products such as Dipel, Agree, Biobit, Deliver, or Javelin.

   SpinTor, Proclaim, and Intrepid have been used successfully when they are timed at first hatch in a 2–3-spray program applied at 10–14-day intervals.  SpinTor has had control failures when used below 5 oz/A in a heavily infested block in the Hudson Valley.  Proclaim is in the same class of chemistry as AgriMek.  When used with LI700, it will penetrate the leaf and provide additional miticidal activity.

   The Bts have been very successfully used at lower rates applied in multiple applications at 5–7-day intervals.  Bts are more sensitive to degradation from UV light and washoff from rain.

   Materials that are effective against the larger larvae include the pyrethroids (Danitol, Warrior, Asana, Baythroid and Proaxis) and Lannate.  One word of caution regarding later applications against the OBLR: The larger larvae fold or roll leaves with webbing to act as harborage for shelter against predation, allowing them protection from direct contact with sprayed insecticides.  They also web leaves against fruit as they feed, making contact with insecticides nearly impossible to achieve with conventional sprayers.  Remember, higher temperatures will reduce the efficacy of some classes of insecticides; this has been shown in Tony Shelton's work on the diamondback moth, and in the decreased efficacy of Spinosad and the pyrethroid insecticides.

   Having insecticides on the tree as larvae emerge from eggs may be more costly, as this requires earlier applications, but will most likely provide the best protection of your fruit.

A video describing aspects of OBLR management can be viewed from the Hudson Valley Regional Fruit Program web site photo gallery at: http://hudsonvf.cce.cornell.edu/photogallery.html

 

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A LOOK AHEAD

THE NEXT BEST THINGS
(Harvey Reissig and Dave Combs, Entomology, Geneva)

[This research report on a 2006 field trial describes the efficacy of some newer OBLR materials that are expected to be labeled in NY after this season.]

   Treatments for comparison of insecticides against obliquebanded leafroller were applied with a truck-mounted handgun sprayer calibrated to deliver 100 gpa and fabricated to simulate airblast application, to plots of apple trees in a Wayne Co. apple orchard of Cortland apples.  This orchard had a documented history of high OBLR pressure and repeated pyrethroid use, which had declined in effectiveness in recent years.  Trees were ca. 8 ft high and planted 6 x 15 ft apart.  Plots were arranged in a 9-tree block (3 x 3) and replicated 3 times within a RCB design. Treatments were applied based on DD accumulations (base temp = 43°F) after the beginning of the summer flight of adults on 12 Jun.  All applications were made 9 days after first moth catch, at 211 dd, targeting the first hatch of larvae.  Sprays were then reapplied 14 days from the first application date, on 6 Jul, and again 18 days later on 24 Jul.  OBLR terminal damage was recorded on 18 Jul by counting 100 terminals in each replicate and noting the presence or absence of larval feeding damage.  Final harvest data were taken by randomly selecting 100 fruits in each plot and inspecting them for OBLR damage based on the USDA fruit grading standards for surface insect injury, on 28 Aug, after feeding from the summer generation of larvae was completed.

   Pressure from OBLR was fairly high in the test orchard, with the untreated check showing 24.7% total fruit damage at harvest.  All treatments significantly reduced terminal damage from OBLR early in the season (Table 1), but differences among the treatments were generally not statistically significant, except for Rimon (novaluron), which was not as effective as some of the best compounds.  All of the treatments also provided good control of fruit damage under severe infestation pressure, and significantly reduced damage below that in check plot.  Statistically, there were very few differences in fruit injury at harvest among treatments and the average levels of clean fruit ranged from 90.3–98.3%.  The lower rate of Altacor (rynaxypyr) was slightly less effective in protecting fruit than the two higher rates, but Dymanic did not increase the efficacy of this material.  Rimon was the least effective treatment, although not at a statistical level, in protecting the fruit.  Both rates of Delegate (spinetoram) gave similar levels of control, and provided slightly (but non-significant) better control than Spintor, the current industry standard.

Table 1. Efficacy of newer insecticides against obliquebanded leafroller, Wayne Co., 2006.

Table 1

 

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General Info

Upcoming Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects | General Info

WORTH REPEATING

CALENDAR (RE) MINDER

SPRAY DEMO

      The next in the series of extension demonstrations that have been organized about using sensor-controlled precision spray systems with tower orchard sprayers will take place at Kast Farms, on Zig-Zag Road (Between Densmore and Latin Rd., see map) on June 20 at 10:00 am.  Growers are encouraged to attend, to view the latest technology at work and to hear about the potential savings in pesticide used.

Spray Map

 

CORNELL 125TH ANNIVERSARY FRUIT FIELD DAY
   Cornell University will host the 2007 Fruit Field Day and Equipment Show at the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva, NY, on Wednesday, July 25, from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.  This is one of several events that commemorates the 125th anniversary of the Experiment Station, which opened its doors on March 1, 1882.

   Fruit growers, consultants, and industry personnel are invited to tour field plots and laboratories and learn about the latest research and extension efforts being carried out by researchers on the Geneva, Highland and Ithaca campuses.  The focus will be on all commodities key to New York's $300 million fruit industry: apples, grapes, raspberries, strawberries, peaches, pears and cherries.

   During lunch, equipment dealers will showcase the latest techniques to improve sprayer deposition and reducing drift.  Representatives from various companies will advise growers on the latest technologies.

   The event will be held on the Experiment Station's Fruit and Vegetable Research Farm South, 1097 County Road No. 4, 1 mile west of Pre-emption Rd. in Geneva, NY.  Signs will be posted.  Attendees will be able to select from tours of apples, stone fruits, small fruits, and grapes, as well as a tour of the Experiment Station’s labs and greenhouses.  Admission is free and lunch is provided courtesy of industry sponsors.  Pre-registration is encouraged.

   For sponsorship and exhibitor information, contact Debbie Breth at 585-798-4265 or dib1@cornell.edu.  More information will be posted to http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/hort/fieldday/ in the very near future.

For additional information, contact Nancy Long at 315-787-2288 or NPL1@cornell.edu  Register on line at: http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/hort/fieldday/index.html

 

 

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This material is based upon work supported by Smith Lever funds from the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

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