Cornell University InsigniaCornell University New York State Agricultural Experiment Station
 

 
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July 9, 2007 Volume 16 No. 17 Update on Pest Management and Crop Development
 

 
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Scaffolds 07 index

Upcoming Events
Current DD accumulations
43°F
50°F

 (Geneva 1/1-7/9):

1638

1067

(Geneva 1/1-7/9/2006):

1675

1061

(Geneva "Normal" 1/1-7/9):

1630

1038

(Geneva 1/1-7/16/2007, predicted):

1855

1235

(Highland 3/1-7/9/07):

1814

1260

 

Coming Events:

Ranges:

 

Comstock mealybug 1st flight peak

1327-1782

931-1143

Codling moth 1st flight subsides

1296-1946

808-1252

Redbanded leafroller 2nd flight begins

1096-2029

775-1077

Redbanded leafroller 2nd flight peak

1479-2443

974-1368

Spotted tentiform leafminer 2nd flight peak

1381-1837

 863-1213

STLM 2nd gen. tissue-feeders present

1504-2086

913-1182

Apple maggot 1st oviposition punctures

1566-2200

1021-1495

American plum borer 2nd flight begins

906-2128

1020-1250

Dogwood borer flight peak

1516-2248

976-1376

Lesser appleworm 2nd flight begins

1152-2302

903-1323

Obliquebanded leafroller 1st flight subsides

1420-2452

1037-1429

 

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Trap Catches

Upcoming Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects | General Info

Geneva

6/28

7/2

7/6

7/9

Redbanded Leafroller

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

11.2

11.3

19.3

24.3

Oriental Fruit Moth

0.3*

0.3

0.7

0.1

Lesser Appleworm

0.7

0.3

1.0

0.5

San Jose scale

0.0

0.0

0.0

7.4*

American Plum Borer

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Lesser Peachtree Borer

0.0

1.6

0.8

0.8

Pandemis Leafroller

0.8

0.0

0.0

0.0

Obliquebanded Leafroller

0.3

0.0

0.0

0.1

Dogwood Borer

0.0

-

0.5*

0.0

Peachtree Borer

0.3

0.0

0.7

0.1

Apple maggot

-

-

0.2*

0.0

 

 

 

 

 

Highland (Peter Jentsch)

6/18

6/25

7/02

7/09

Redbanded Leafroller

0.0

1.6*

2.0

3.9

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

16.3

21.8

36.8

62.3

Oriental Fruit Moth

0.1

4.0

2.6

6.6

Codling Moth

1.2

0.7

0.4

1.4

Lesser Appleworm

2.6

2.7

0.1

0.9

Obliquebanded Leafroller

1.4

0.7

0.9

0.1

Variegated Leafroller

0.4

0.3

<0.1

0.0

Apple Maggot

0.0

0.1*

<0.1

0.2

  * = 1st catch

 

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Pest Focus

Upcoming Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects | General Info

Geneva: Dogwood borer and apple maggot 1st catch 7/5. San Jose scale 2nd flight beginning.
Highland: Japanese beetle feeding on apple foliage observed. Plum curculio summer-feeding on apple fruit observed.
Degree day forecast for hatch of second gen. spotted tentiform leafminer = 7/7.
Degree day forecast for hatch of second gen. codling moth = 7/17.

Degree day forecast for insecticide application against second gen. San Jose scale = 7/18.

 

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Insects

Upcoming Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects | General Info

FLIGHT PLAN

ORCHARD RADAR DIGEST

Geneva Predictions:
Roundheaded Appletree Borer and Dogwood Borer
RAB peak egg hatch roughly: July 5 to July 25.

Codling Moth
Codling moth development as of July 8: 2nd generation adult emergence at 2% and 1st generation egg hatch at 99%.

Lesser Appleworm
2nd flight begins around: July 6.

Obliquebanded Leafroller
Where waiting to sample late instar OBLR larvae to determine need for treatment is an option, or to check on results from earlier sprays:
Optimum sample date for late-instar summer generation OBLR larvae: July 4.
If first OBLR late-instar larvae sample is below threshold, date for confirmation follow-up: July 8.

Oriental Fruit Moth
2nd generation first treatment date, if needed: July 5.
2nd generation second treatment date, if needed: July 15

Redbanded Leafroller
2nd generation peak catch and approximate start of egg hatch: July 10.

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
Optimum first sample date for 2nd generation sap-feeding mines is: July 8.

Second optimized sample date for 2nd generation sap-feeding mines, if needed: July 14.

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ETA

MODEL BUILDING

Insect model degree day accumulations:

Codling Moth (Treatment period for the 2nd generation starts at 1260 DD base 50°F after biofix):

Location

Biofix

DD (as of 7/6)

Highland

May 14

 

Clintondale

May 14

871

Geneva

May 17

815

Sodus

May 17

717

Ithaca

May 24

691

Lansing

May 24

758

Albion

May 25

798

Williamson

May 25

722

Appleton (South)

May 25

772

Appleton (North)

May 25

734

Waterport

May 28

794

Obliquebanded Leafroller (% estimated egg hatch in DD base 43°F after biofix: 50% hatch - 630 DD; "halfway point" in development of earliest emerging larvae – 720 DD; 90% hatch – 810 DD):

Location

Biofix

DD (as of 7/6)

Highland

6/1

 

Clintondale

6/4

767

Albion

6/7 (est'd)

783

Sodus

6/9

613

Appleton (South)

6/10 (est'd)

684

Williamson

6/10 (est'd)

650

Geneva

6/11

651

Lansing

6/11

629

Ithaca

6/11

578

Oriental Fruit Moth (First treatment targeting earliest egg hatch of 2nd generation larvae between 175-200 DD base 45°F after biofix):

Location

Biofix

DD (as of 7/6)

Albion

6/30 (est'd)

134

Sodus

6/30 (est'd)

110

Williamson

6/30 (est'd)

126

Geneva

6/28

179

Ithaca

6/30 (est'd)

111

[NOTE: Consult our mini expert system for arthropod pest management, the
Apple Pest Degree Day Calculator:
http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ipm/specware/newa/appledd.php
Find accumulated degree days between dates with the
Degree Day Calculator:
http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ipm/specware/newa/
Powered by the NYS IPM Program’s NEWA weather data and the Baskerville-Emin formula]

 

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INSECT BITES INSECT

MEAN AND GREEN
(Art Agnello, Entomology, Geneva)

   There are many insects present in apple orchards that provide a benefit to growers by feeding on pest species.  It is important that growers and orchard managers be able to recognize these natural enemies, so that they are not mistaken for pests.  The best way to conserve beneficial insects is to spray only when necessary, and to use materials that are less toxic to them (see Tables 5 & 12, pp. 58 and 64 of the Recommends).  This brief review, taken from IPM Tree-Fruit Fact Sheet No. 18 (available online at: http://www.nysipm.cornell.edu/factsheets/treefruit/pests/ben/ben.asp), covers the major beneficial insects that are likely to be seen in N.Y. orchards, concentrating on the most commonly seen life stages.  Factsheet No. 23, "Predatory Mites" (online: http://www.nysipm.cornell.edu/factsheets/treefruit/pests/pm/pm.asp), reviews mites that are important predators of leaf-feeding mites.

CECIDOMYIID LARVAE (Aphidoletes aphidimyza)
   These gall midge flies (Family Cecidomyiidae) are aphid predators, and overwinter as larvae or pupae in a cocoon.  Adults emerge from this cocoon, mate, and females lay eggs among aphid colonies.  The adults are delicate, resembling mosquitoes, and are not likely to be seen.  The eggs are very small (about 0.3 mm or 1/85 in. long) and orange.  They hatch into small, brightly colored, orange larvae that can be found eating aphids on the leaf surface.  These predacious larvae are present from mid-June throughout the summer.  There are 3–6 generations per year.  In addition to aphids, they also feed on soft-bodied scales and mealybugs.

SYRPHID FLY LARVAE (Family Syrphidae)
   The Family Syrphidae contains the "hover flies", so named because of the adults' flying behavior.  They are brightly colored with yellow and black stripes, resembling bees.  Syrphids overwinter as pupae in the soil.  In the spring, the adults emerge, mate, and lay single, long whitish eggs on foliage or bark, from early spring through midsummer, usually among aphid colonies.  One female lays several eggs.  After hatching, the larvae feed on aphids by piercing their bodies and sucking the fluids, leaving shriveled, blackened aphid cadavers.  These predacious larvae are shaped cylindrically and taper toward the head.  There are 5–7 generations per year.  Syrphid larvae feed on aphids, and may also feed on scales and caterpillars.

LADYBIRD BEETLES (Family Coccinellidae)
   • Stethorus punctum: This ladybird beetle is an important predator of European red mite in parts of the northeast, particularly in Pennsylvania, and has been observed intermittently in the Hudson Valley of N.Y., and occasionally in western N.Y.  Stethorus overwinters as an adult in the "litter" and ground cover under trees, or in nearby protected places.  The adults are rounded, oval, uniformly shiny black, and are about 1.3–1.5 mm (1/16 in.) long.  Eggs are laid mostly on the undersides of the leaves, near the primary veins, at a density of 1–10 per leaf.  They are small and pale white, and about 0.3–0.4 mm (1/85 in.) long.  Eggs turn black just prior to hatching.  The larva is gray to blackish with numerous hairs, but becomes reddish as it matures, starting on the edges and completing the change just prior to pupation.  There are 3 generations per year in south-central Pennsylvania, with peak periods of larval activity in mid-May, mid-June and mid-August.  The pupa is uniformly black, small and flattened, and is attached to the leaf.

   • Other Ladybird Beetles: Ladybird beetles are very efficient predators of aphids, scales and mites.  Adults are generally hemisphere-shaped, and brightly colored or black, ranging in size from 0.8 to over 8 mm (0.03–0.3 in.).  They overwinter in sheltered places and become active in the spring.  Eggs are laid on the undersides of leaves, usually near aphid colonies, and are typically yellow, spindle-shaped, and stand on end.  Females may lay hundreds of eggs.  The larvae have well-developed legs and resemble miniature alligators, and are brightly colored, usually black with yellow.  The pupal case can often be seen attached to a leaf or branch.  There are usually 1–2 generations per year.  One notable species that is evident now is Coccinella septempunctata, the sevenspotted lady beetle, often referred to as C-7.  This insect, which is large and reddish-orange with seven distinct black spots, was intentionally released into N.Y. state beginning in 1977, and has become established as an efficient predator in most parts of the state.

LACEWINGS (Family Chrysopidae)
   Adult lacewings are green or brown insects with net-like, delicate wings, long antennae, and prominent eyes.  The larvae are narrowly oval with two sickle-shaped mouthparts, which are used to pierce the prey and extract fluids.  Often the larvae are covered with "trash", which is actually the bodies of their prey and other debris.  Lacewings overwinter as larvae in cocoons, inside bark cracks or in leaves on the ground.  In the spring, adults become active and lay eggs on the trunks and branches.  These whitish eggs are laid singly and can be seen connected to the leaf by a long, threadlike "stem".  Lacewings feed on aphids, leafhoppers, scales, mites, and eggs of Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths).

TRUE BUGS (Order Hemiptera)
   There are many species of "true bugs" (Order Hemiptera) such as tarnished plant bug, that feed on plants, but a number of them are also predators of pest species.  The ones most likely to be seen are "assassin bugs" or reduviids (Family Reduviidae), and "damsel bugs" or nabids (Family Nabidae).  These types of predators typically have front legs that are efficient at grasping and holding their prey.

PARASITOIDS
   Parasitoids are insects that feed on or in the tissue of other insects, consuming all or most of their host and eventually killing it.  They are typically small wasps (Order Hymenoptera; e.g., families Ichneumonidae, Braconidae, Chalcididae), or flies (Order Diptera; e.g., family Tachinidae).  Although the adult flies or wasps may be seen occasionally in an orchard, it is much more common to observe the eggs, larvae, or pupae in or on the parasitized pest insect.  Eggs may be laid directly on a host such as the obliquebanded leafroller, or near the host, such as in the mine of a spotted tentiform leafminer.  After the parasitoid consumes the pest, it is not unusual to find the parasitized larvae or eggs of a moth host, or aphids that have been parastized ("mummies").  Exit holes can be seen where the parasitoid adult has emerged from the aphid mummy.

GENERALIST PREDATORS
   There is a diversity of other beneficial species to be found in apple orchards, most of which are rarely seen, but whose feeding habits make them valuable additions to any crop system.  The use of more selective pesticides helps to maintain their numbers and contributes to the level of natural control attainable in commercial fruit plantings.  Among these beneficials are:
   • Spiders (Order Araneida): All spiders are predaceous and feed mainly on insects.  The prey is usually killed by the poison injected into it by the spider's bite.  Different spiders capture their prey in different ways; crab spiders (Thomisidae and Philodromidae) and jumping spiders (Salticidae) forage for and pounce on their prey -- the crab spiders lie in wait for their prey on flowers -- and web-building spiders (e.g., Araneidae, Theridiidae, and Dictynidae) capture their prey in nets or webs.
   • Ants (Family Formicidae): The feeding habits of ants are rather varied.  Some are carnivorous, feeding on other animals or insects (living or dead), some feed on plants, some on fungi, and many feed on sap, nectar, honeydew, and similar substances.  Research done in Washington has shown certain species (Formica spp.) of ants to be effective predators of pear psylla.
   • Earwigs (Family Forficulidae): Although these insects may sometimes attack fruit and vegetable crops, those found in apple orchards are probably more likely to be scavengers that feed on a variety of small insects.

 

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General Info

Upcoming Events | Trap Catches | Pest Focus | Insects | General Info

LEST YOU FORGET

EVENT LINEUP

Spray Demo

      The next in the series of extension demonstrations that have been organized about using sensor-controlled precision spray systems with tower orchard sprayers will take place at Ledgerock Farms, on Route 63 (just south of Medina, see map) on July 11 at 2:00 pm.  Growers are encouraged to attend, to view the latest technology at work and to hear about the potential savings in pesticide used.


 

Cornell Fruit Field Day

   Cornell University will host the 2007 Fruit Field Day and Equipment Show at the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva, NY, on Wednesday, July 25, from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.  This is one of several events that commemorates the 125th anniversary of the Experiment Station, which opened its doors on March 1, 1882.

   Fruit growers, consultants, and industry personnel are invited to tour field plots and laboratories and learn about the latest research and extension efforts being carried out by researchers on the Geneva, Highland and Ithaca campuses.  The focus will be on all commodities key to New York's $300 million fruit industry: apples, grapes, raspberries, strawberries, peaches, pears and cherries.

   During lunch, equipment dealers will showcase the latest techniques to improve sprayer deposition and reducing drift.  Representatives from various companies will advise growers on the latest technologies.

   The event will be held on the Experiment Station's Fruit and Vegetable Research Farm South, 1097 County Road No. 4, 1 mile west of Pre-emption Rd. in Geneva, NY.  Signs will be posted.  Attendees will be able to select from tours of apples, stone fruits, small fruits, and grapes, as well as a tour of the Experiment Station’s labs and greenhouses.  Admission is free and lunch is provided courtesy of industry sponsors.  Pre-registration is requested (see form.)

   For sponsorship and exhibitor information, contact Debbie Breth at 585-798-4265 or dib1@cornell.edu.  More information will be posted to http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/hort/fieldday/ in the very near future.

For additional information, contact Nancy Long at 315-787-2288 or NPL1@cornell.edu  Register on line at: http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/hort/fieldday/index.html

 

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This material is based upon work supported by Smith Lever funds from the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

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