Cornell University InsigniaCornell University New York State Agricultural Experiment Station
 

 
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September 4, 2007 Volume 16 No. 25 Update on Pest Management and Crop Development
 

 
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Scaffolds 07 index

Upcoming Events
Current DD accumulations
43°F
50°F

(Geneva 1/1-9/4):

3161

2135

(Geneva 1/1-9/4/2006):

3211

2199

(Geneva "Normal" 1/1-9/4):

3149

2133

(Geneva 1/1-9/10/2007, predicted):

3333

2308

 

Coming Events:

Ranges:

 

American plum borer 2nd flight subsides

3117-3607

2169-2539

Apple maggot flight subsides

2772-3374

1908-2368

Codling moth 2nd flight subsides

2859-3583

1944-2536

Lesser appleworm 2nd flight peak

2159-3213

1443-2229

Lesser appleworm 2nd flight subsides

2883-3467

1973-2387

Lesser peachtree borer flight subsides

2996-3446

2017-2433

Obliquebanded leafroller 2nd flight peak

2620-3016

1784-2108

Obliquebanded leafroller 2nd flight subsides

2965-3489

2036-2458

Oriental fruit moth 3rd flight peak

2641-3249

1821-2257

Oriental fruit moth 3rd flight subsides

2962-3381

2000-2288

Peachtree borer flight subsides

2523-3157

1708-2202

Redbanded leafroller 3rd flight peak

2761-3249

1899-2337

Redbanded leafroller 3rd flight subsides

3124-3436

2142-2422

San Jose scale 2nd flight subsides

2639-3349

1785-2371

Spotted tentiform leafminer 3rd flight peak

2606-3050

1782-2124

Spotted tentiform leafminer 3rd flight subsides

3230-3444

2246-2432

 

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Trap Catches

Upcoming Events | Trap Catches | Insects

Geneva

8/23

8/27

8/30

9/4

Redbanded Leafroller

1.0

3.5

3.2

2.6

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

3.7

5.5

6.8

4.1

Oriental Fruit Moth

1.3

3.3

2.3

1.5

Lesser Appleworm

0.8

0.9

0.5

0.0

San Jose scale

55.8

39.4

130

24.4

American Plum Borer

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.1

Lesser Peachtree Borer

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Obliquebanded Leafroller

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Peachtree Borer

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Apple maggot

2.0

0.8

0.5

0.5

 

 

 

 

 

Highland (Peter Jentsch)

8/6

8/13

8/20

8/27

Redbanded Leafroller

0.4

0.5

1.9

3.3

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

26.9

22.4

12.9

12.1

Oriental Fruit Moth

2.3

2.7

1.9

1.0

Codling Moth

2.4

0.9

0.4

<0.1

Lesser Appleworm

3.9

5.2

2.1

1.4

Obliquebanded Leafroller

0.7*

0.0

0.0

0.0

Variegated Leafroller

0.2

0.1

0.3

0.0

Apple Maggot

0.5

0.9

0.5

0.2

Tufted apple budmoth

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

  * = 1st catch

 

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Insects

Upcoming Events | Trap Catches | Insects

WHAT HAPPENED?

2007 FRUIT ARTHROPOD PEST REVIEW
(Art Agnello, Entomology, Geneva)

   To refresh your memory, this was the season that started out so cool and gradual, it seemed the warm weather would never get here.  Even more oddly, we hardly had any real winter weather until about March, and then degree day numbers stayed considerably below the long-term average until the end of May, so most spring insect activity was very low-key and predictable, with no real events of note except a very pleasant progression through pink bud, bloom and petal fall.  Once Memorial Day passed, however, it was another story entirely; we were routinely in the high 80s, heat units were even with or ahead of average, and the rainfall totals dropped to deficit levels.  As most pest management duties are now over with, this is probably a good time to attempt our annual re-cap of the season's arthropod highlights.

   As in 2006, the weather had the positive effect of obstructing many of the early season pests such as European red mite, spotted tentiform leafminer, and pear psylla.  The same was initially true also for rosy apple aphid, which was essentially absent from most orchards we were scouting, until sometime after petal fall, when many sites suddenly showed up with troublesome infestations, often in combination with green aphids, that needed attention if only to prevent the buildup of honeydew, sooty mold and foliar deformities.  Similar to the last two years, there was enough post-bloom heat to give plum curculio a boost through its oviposition period, so that most locations were able to get by with just the petal fall and 1st cover applications to obtain sufficient protection.

   The traditional summer moth pests seemed to maintain their pattern of heavy flights this year, among them obliquebanded leafroller and the internal worm (oriental fruit moth, codling moth, etc.) complex, with high moth catches and some fruit damage showing up in the traditional high-pressure spots.  Some new chemistry appeared to tame many of the early season OBLR problems, and most growers appear to have done a good job of staying on top of the internal worms, although codling moth has continued its tendency to be considered a predictable key NY pest rather than a troublesome footnote in a few local spots.  As before, more growers have been using OP-alternative CM and OFM control measures (including mating disruption, neo-nics like Assail and Calypso, and CM virus) around the state.

   Apple maggot suffered from the summer heat this year, as the dry soil conditions hampered its ability to emerge in normal numbers from the overwintering pupal sites in the ground.  European red mite populations were unexpectedly slow to build, possibly because of the effective group of preventive and rescue acaricides available, although eventually a number of orchards did develop some late season mite populations, including peach and other stone fruit plantings, which came up with the twospotted spider mites that we tend to expect during hot and dry years.  Woolly apple aphid was evident in a number of places once again, showing up early but not necessarily taking off the way they are capable of doing. 

   Other sporadic summer pests were also to be found, depending on the specific locality: pear psylla and potato leafhopper, stink bugs, and San Jose scale all generated their share of attention in one area of the state or another.  For the second year running, tent caterpillars and Japanese beetle were also notable for their abundance during midsummer.  Finally, we'll be looking out for the last few pests that always occur in some numbers, to get an idea of their importance as the fruit starts coming in for packing: Comstock mealybug, white apple leafhopper and tarnished plant bug.

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WEATHER OR NOT

EVERYBODY TALKS ABOUT THE WEATHER...
(Dave Kain & Art Agnello, Entomology, Geneva)

     After a mid-April drenching, or even a foot of snow in some higher elevations, things dried out. And then some, with Geneva receiving only 57% of normal rainfall for the period May–August. So far, September is shaping up to be equally dry.  Despite good quality in both the pome and stone fruit crops, the lack of rain is likely to result in some fruit size issues by the time harvest is finished.  In terms of degree day accumulation, however, we're right about normal. 

   Following are comparative listings of some of the pest events that occurred this season (in Geneva) with calendar and degree-day normals.  The values and dates are given +/- one standard deviation; i.e., events should occur within the stated range approximately 7 years out of 10.

   
DATE
DEGREE DAYS  (BASE 43°F)  
EVENT  
Normal (+/-days)
2007
Normal (+/-DD)
2007
   
APPLE MAGGOT
  1st catch
30-Jun(+/-9)
5-Jul
1394(+/-203)
1516
  Peak
4-Aug(+/-12)
23-Jul
2361(+/-218)
2005
  Flight subsiding
2-Sep(+/-9)
3073(+/-301)
   
AMERICAN PLUM BORER
  1st catch
17-May(+/-7)
21-May
426(+/-98)
468
  1st flight peak
2-Jun(+/-7)
29-May
718(+/-156)
642
  1st flight subsiding
29-Jun(+/-6)
27-Jun
1361(+/-192)
1353
  2nd flight start
12-Jul(+/-6)
6-Aug
1666(+/-251)
2419
  2nd flight peak
28-Jul(+/-8)
13-Aug
2205(+/-249)
2628
   
CODLING MOTH
  1st catch
19-May(+/-8)
17-May
 500(+/-111)
436
   
DOGWOOD BORER
  1st catch
18-Jun(+/-11)
5-Jul
1056(+/-260)
1516
   
GREEN FRUITWORM
  1st catch
5-Apr(+/-8)
5-Apr
88(+/-36)
108
  Peak
16-Apr(+/-11)
3-May
150(+/-53)
246
  Subsiding
7-May(+/-10)
7-May
346(+/-112)
274
   
LESSER APPLEWORM
  1st catch
12-May(+/-11)
24-May
398(+/-152)
519
  1st flight peak
22-May(+/-11)
4-Jun
540(+/-156)
806
  2nd flight starts
12-Jul(+/-11)
23-Jul
1672(+/-307)
2005
  2nd flight peak
20-Aug(+/-25)
27-Aug
2686(+/-527)
2967
  2nd flight subsiding
20-Sep(+/-21)
3175(+/-292)
    
LESSER PEACHTREE BORER
  1st catch
26-May(+/-8)
29-May
587(+/-140)
642
  Flight subsiding
9-Sep(+/-5)
20-Aug
3221(+/-225)
2792
   
OBLIQUEBANDED LEAFROLLER
  1st catch
10-Jun(+/-5)
11-Jun
916(+/-84)
936
  1st flight peak
18-Jun(+/-10)
14-Jun
1111(+/-211)
1017
  2nd flight begins
6-Aug(+/-9)
9-Aug
2462(+/-189)
2515
   
ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH
  1st catch
2-May(+/-8)
7-May
294(+/-89
274
  1st flight peak
14-May(+/-11)
24-May
432(+/-104)
519
  2nd flight begins
30-Jun(+/-5)
28-Jun
1418(+/-146)
1392
  2nd flight peak
9-Jul(+/-10)
12-Jul
1732(+/-354)
1744
  3rd flight begins
11-Aug(+/-9)
6-Aug
2540(+/-203)
2419
  3rd flight peak
26-Aug(+/-14)
17-Aug
2945(+/-304)
2735
  3rd flight subsides
13-Sep(+/-19)
3171(+/-209)
   
PANDEMIS LEAFROLLER
  1st catch
7-Jun(+/-7)
7-Jun
831(+/-77)
852
  Flight peak
13-Jun(+/-7)
28-Jun
977(+/-92)
1392
  Flight subsides
4-Jul(+/-5)
2-Jul
1526(+/-123)
1454
   
PEACHTREE BORER
  1st catch
18-Jun(+/-11)
25-Jun
1066(+/-288)
1283
  Flight subsides
24-Aug(+/-14)
17-Aug
2840(+/-317)
2735
   
REDBANDED LEAFROLLER
  1st catch
17-Apr(+/-7)
23-Apr
178(+/-78)
159
  1st flight peak
3-May(+/-9)
10-May
302(+/-75)
340
  1st flight subsides
1-Jun(+/-8)
14-Jun
747(+/-162)
1017
  2nd flight begins
1-Jul(+/-6)
16-Jul
1458(+/-204)
1839
  2nd flight peak
14-Jul(+/-7)
30-Jul
1788(+/-253)
2197
  2nd flight subsides
6-Aug(+/-11)
20-Aug
2434(+/-254)
2792
  3rd flight begins
20-Aug(+/-10)
27-Aug
2805(+/-156)
2967
  3rd flight peak
28-Aug(+/-11)
3005(+/-244)
   
SAN JOSE SCALE - adult males
  1st flight begins
18-May(+/-9)
24-May
492(+/-113)
519
  1st flight peak
31-May(+/-8)
29-May
666(+/-69)
642
  2nd flight begins
16-Jul(+/-9)
9-Jul
1763(+/-184)
1638
  2nd flight peak
5-Aug(+/-10)
30-Jul
2315(+/-212)
2197
  2nd flight subsides
2-Sep(+/-11)
2994(+/-355
   
SPOTTED TENTIFORM LEAFMINER
  1st catch
19-Apr(+/-6)
7-May
175(+/-61)
274
  1st flight peak
6-May(+/-7)
10-May
331(+/-76)
340
  2nd flight begins
15-Jun(+/-7)
21-Jun
1069(+/-115)
1199
  2nd flight peak
7-Jul(+/-10)
12-Jul
1609(+/-228)
1744
  3rd flight begins
7-Aug(+/-7)
9-Aug
2476(+/-195)
2515
  3rd flight peak
21-Aug(+/-10)
17-Aug
2828(+/-222)
2735
   
   
CROP  
DATE
DEGREE DAYS(BASE 43°F)
PHENOLOGY  
Normal (+/-days)
2007
Normal (+/-DD)
2007
APPLE (MCINTOSH)
  Green tip
12-Apr(+/-7)
23-Apr
119(+/-26)
159
  Half-inch green
21-Apr(+/-6)
24-Apr
177(+/-24)
179
  Tight cluster
27-Apr(+/-7)
3-May
227(+/-30)
246
  Pink
4-May(+/-6)
7-May
293(+/-18)
274
  Bloom
11-May(+/-6)
14-May
384(+/-37)
384
  Petal fall
18-May(+/-6)
21-May
485(+/-41)
468
   
APPLE (RED DELICIOUS)
  Green tip
12-Apr(+/-6)
23-Apr
134(+/-30)
159
  Half-inch green
20-Apr(+/-7)
30-Apr
190(+/-25)
227
  Tight cluster
27-Apr(+/-6)
7-May
248(+/-31)
274
  Pink
7-May(+/-7)
10-May
337(+/-43)
340
  Bloom
15-May(+/-7)
17-May
433(+/-55)
436
  Petal fall
23-May(+/-8)
24-May
554(+/-74)
519
   
PEAR (BARTLETT)
  Bud burst
21-Apr(+/-7)
23-Apr
164(+/-42)
159
  Green cluster
29-Apr(+/-7)
30-Apr
235(+/-26)
227
  White bud
4-May(+/-7)
7-May
293(+/-41)
274
  Bloom
7-May(+/-7)
10-May
345(+/-49)
340
  Petal fall
15-May(+/-7)
14-May
438(+/-51)
384
   
SWEET CHERRY
  Bud burst
20-Apr(+/-7)
23-Apr
169(+/-28)
159
  White bud
29-Apr(+/-6)
3-May
219(+/-26)
246
  Bloom
4-May(+/-6)
7-May
271(+/-31)
274
  Petal fall
11-May(+/-5)
14-May
385(+/-44)
384
   
TART CHERRY (MONTMORENCY)
  Bud burst
24-Apr(+/-7)
23-Apr
203(+/-39)
159
  White bud
3-May(+/-7)
5-May
265(+/-31)
261
  Bloom
9-May(+/-5)
10-May
345(+/-46)
340
  Petal fall
17-May(+/-6)
17-May
450(+/-46)
436

 

 


This material is based upon work supported by Smith Lever funds from the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

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