Cornell University InsigniaCornell University New York State Agricultural Experiment Station
 

 
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April, 28 2008 Volume 17 No. 6 Update on Pest Management and Crop Development
 

 

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Upcoming Events

Current DD accumulations

43F

50F

(Geneva 1/1-4/28):

323

178

(Geneva 1/1-4/28/2007):

206

92

(Geneva "Normal"):

238

112

(Geneva 1/1-5/5 Predicted):

367

195

(Highland 3/1-4/28/08):

293

140

 

Coming Events: Ranges
(Normal +/- Std Dev):

American plum borer 1st catch

331-525

143-279

Comstock mealybug 1st gen crawlers in pear buds

215-441

80-254

European red mite egg hatch

231-337

100-168

European red mite egg hatch complete

368-470

182-280

Lesser appleworm 1st catch

257-573

116-304

Mirid bugs 1st hatch

332-468

163-239

Oriental fruit moth 1st catch

207-381

81-203

Pear psylla egg hatch

174-328

60-166

Redbanded leafroller 1st flight peak

229-377

103-191

Rose leafhopper nymphs on multiflora rose

239-397

96-198

Spotted tentiform leafminer 1st flight peak

257-407

115-207

McIntosh at bloom

348-420

171-219

 

Phenologies
Geneva 4/28 5/5 (Predicted)

Apple (McIntosh):

Full pink

Bloom

Apple (Delicious):

Early pink

King bloom

Apple (Empire):

Early pink

Bloom

Pear (Bartlett):

White bud

Bloom

Sweet Cherry (Hedelfingen):

10% Petal fall

Petal fall

Tart Cherry (Montmorency):

Bloom

Bloom

Plum (Stanley):

Bloom

Petal fall

Peach:

Bloom

Petal fall

 

 

 

Highland

Apple (Ginger Gold): Bloom

Apple (McIntosh): King bloom

Apple (Red Delicious): Early king bloom

Apple (Golden Delicious): 1st king bloom

Pear (Bartlett,Bosc): Bloom

Peach (early): 10% petal fall

Peach (late): Bloom

Sweet Cherry: Bloom to 10% Petal fall

Plum (Stanley, Italian): Bloom

Pest Focus

Geneva:

Oriental Fruit Moth 1st trap catch 4/24

Phelps, Ontario Co. (J. Eve):

Rosy Apple Aphid found 4/25

Lyons, Wayne Co. (J. Eve):

Obliquebanded Leafroller larva found 4/25

Highland:

Pear Psylla nymphs present on pear 4/24
1st Plum Curculio observed in apples.

 

 

Trap Catches

Geneva

4/21

4/24

4/28

Green Fruitworm

0.0

0.7

0.0

Redbanded Leafroller

5.3

9.0

7.5

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

0.1

0.8

9.0

Oriental Fruit Moth

-

0.2*

0.5

Highland (Peter Jentsch)

4/7

4/14

4/21

4/28

Green Fruitworm

0.5

0.5

0.1

0.0

Redbanded Leafroller

0.0

0.6*

6.7

6.1

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

0.0

0.3*

30.2

53.4

Oriental Fruit Moth

0.0

0.0

0.2*

4.4

Codling Moth

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

* = 1st catch

Insects
PREPARE FOR TAKEOFF

ORCHARD RADAR DIGEST

Geneva Predictions:
Roundheaded Appletree Borer
RAB adult emergence begins: May 28; Peak emergence: June 13.
RAB egglaying begins: June 6. Peak egglaying period roughly: June 28 to July 12.

Codling Moth
1st generation 3% CM egg hatch: June 9 (= target date for first spray where multiple sprays needed to control 1st generation CM).
1st generation 20% CM egg hatch: June 16 (= target date where one spray needed to control 1st generation codling moth).

Lesser Appleworm
1st LAW flight, 1st trap catch: May 9.

Mullein Plant Bug
Expected 50% egg hatch date: May 13, which is 9 days before rough estimate of Red Delicious petal fall date.
The most accurate time for limb tapping counts, but possibly after MPB damage has occurred, is when 90% of eggs have hatched.
90% egg hatch date: May 18.

Obliquebanded Leafroller
1st generation OBLR flight, first trap catch expected: June 10.

Oriental Fruit Moth
1st OFM flight starts, and first treatment date, if needed: April 28.

Redbanded Leafroller
Peak trap catch and approximate start of egg hatch: May 1.

San Jose Scale
First adult SJS caught on trap: May 17.

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
1st STLM flight, peak trap catch: May 9.
1st generation sapfeeding mines start showing: May 21.
Optimum sample date is around May 22, when a larger portion of the mines have become detectable.

White Apple Leafhopper
1st generation WALH found on apple foliage: May 13.


 

READY
TO
BUST

THE BRINK OF PINK
(Art Agnello, Entomology, Geneva)

       The stop-and-go temperature wheel has succeeding in playing havoc with nearly everyone's expectations about where we are vs. where we should be at this point in the season, since some blocks in some regions are certainly at pink bud already (or will get there this week), and others are still clambering through tight cluster.  Nevertheless, this would probably be a timely opportunity to get prepared for the crush of pink bud pest management duties that always seems to coincide during too short a period.  A brief assessment of where we stand with insect pests might be useful at this point.

   The potential pests of most concern just now are probably rosy apple aphid (RAA), oriental fruit moth (OFM), and tarnished plant bug (TPB), with European apple sawfly and plum curculio lurking in the wings.  Unlike the past few years, OFM has managed to show its face well before bloom this season, and very likely the warm-up predicted for the end of this week will see biofix established in most plantings statewide.  In blocks with a history of internal worm infestations, 1 or 2 traps checked weekly might help indicate the relative size of the first generation population this year.  This is followed, of course, by the question of how to respond when the numbers start building. 

   This is always a pertinent time of the year to quote the philosopher Yogi Berra, who might have been giving prebloom advice when he said 'If you don't know where you are going, you will wind up somewhere else.'  However, I might venture a guess that, even though we may get quite a few moths flying during pink and bloom, the overall temperature ranges we're expecting will result in very little egg hatch until petal fall, when the newly emerged 1st brood larvae will be best handled.  Most growers will be using an OP like Guthion or Imidan at petal fall, possibly tank-mixed with a Bt, Intrepid or Proclaim for OBLR, and all of these will have some effect on most OFM populations.  In particularly high-risk situations (that is, where you had a hard time managing internal leps last year, and can predict that they'll be back this year), you might want to substitute a more lep-active material like Avaunt or Calypso for one of your petal fall or (adding Assail in the list of options) first cover sprays.  This way you might get an extra jump on the OFM/CM complex during their first generation, while covering the need to protect against other petal fall regulars like plum curculio and European apple sawfly.  Speaking of which, both of these postbloom anticipators will have gotten a kick-start from the recent warm days and nights, so they're likely to be waiting anxiously for the newly set fruitlets to become available for their good works.  This will underscore the importance of prompt petal fall sprays, admittedly more of a challenge in mixed plantings of varieties with markedly different bloom dates.

   According to your personal philosophy, RAA and TPB can be either perennial challenges, puzzling but non-fatal occurrences, or else a complete flip of the coin.  Do you have them, do you need to treat for them, are you able to control them if you do, and does it matter if you don't?  These pests also have been slow to tip their hand this season, although some founding colonies have already been noted in local orchards.  It's possible to scout for rosies at pink, but this is often not practical, given all the other hectic activity at this time.  TPB is not a good candidate for scouting, and if the bloom period is prolonged by cool, wet weather, a pink spray is of little use.  You'll have to decide for yourself whether this bug is of sufficient concern to you to justify treating.  We have seen few orchards in western NY where TPB control is warranted (and only slightly more in the Hudson Valley), simply because the most effective treatment to use has been a pyrethroid, which a) kills predator mites, and b) still rarely lowers TPB damage enough to be economically justified.  If you elect a spray of Ambush, Asana, Baythroid, Danitol, Pounce or Warrior at pink for plant bug, you'll take care of rosy apple aphid (and STLM) at the same time.  If RAA is your main concern, you could elect a pink spray (non-pyrethroid options include Actara, Assail, Calypso, Esteem, Lannate, Lorsban, Vydate, OR the newly labeled product Beleaf – see the "Chem News" section) if you have the luxury of a suitable application window.  Once again, be sure to consider potential impacts on non-target species such as beneficials, and be aware of your bee supplier's concerns about effects on pollinating bees.

       What else is happening at pink?  STLM is laying eggs, but most orchards don't seem to suffer too greatly from 1st brood leafminer these days, and a sequential sampling plan can be used to classify STLM egg density at pink or of sap-feeding mines immediately after petal fall (see pages 69 and 71 in the Recommends).  Treatment is recommended if eggs average 2 or more per leaf on the young fruit cluster leaves at pink, or if sap-feeding mines average 1 or more per leaf on these leaves at petal fall.  Sampling can be completed in approximately 10 minutes.

   Leafrollers are also out there, but only part of the population is active at this time, so while you might get good control of any larvae you spray now, don't neglect the fact that the rest of the population won't be out (and susceptible to sprays) until bloom or petal fall, so it's probably better to wait until then to address this pest.

       Finally, if mites normally need attention in a given block, and you haven't elected (or been able to) a delayed-dormant oil application as a part of your early season mite management program, you'll be needing to rely on either: one of the ovicidal acaricides (Apollo, Savey, Zeal) available for use, whether before or after bloom; a rescue-type product (Nexter, Acramite, Kanemite, Kelthane, Carzol, Zeal) that can reduce motile numbers later on if they should begin to lap at the threshold; or Agri-Mek, which falls somewhere between these two strategies.  Like the true ovicides, Agri-Mek should also be considered a preventive spray, since it needs to be applied early (before there are very many motiles) to be most effective, generally within the first 2 weeks after petal fall.  Also, as a reminder, Carzol is restricted to no later than petal fall, so it may be of limited use in most programs.  For any of the rescue products, the operational threshold in June is an average of 2.5 motiles per leaf (see the chart on p. 72 of the Recommends).

 

Chem News
YOU
CAN
BELEAF
IT

PRODUCT REGISTRATION UPDATE, III
(Art Agnello, Entomology, Geneva)

FMC

Beleaf 50SG (EPA Reg. No. 71512-10-279) is an insecticide labeled against aphids and plant bugs in NY for pome fruit and stone fruit; the label classifies it as an IRAC Section 9C material, which is "Unknown or non-specific mode of action – selective feeding blockers".  We have not tested it in NY field trials, but researchers in NJ have reported good efficacy against green peach aphid and tarnished plant bug in peaches.  The label also lists apple aphid, black cherry aphid, rosy apple aphid, spirea aphid and woolly apple aphid.  As always, proper timing and adequate coverage are recommended for best results against these species.

 

General Info
ON
SITE

COLONY COLLAPSE DISORDER UPDATE AVAILABLE

Dr. Nicholas Calerone, at Cornell's Dyce Laboratory for Honey Bee Studies, has released an extensive update on the Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) situation.  In this letter to the Cornell University Master Beekeeper Program, Nick details the background and scope of this problem, symptoms and possible causes of CCD.  He discusses possible links of the disease with known parasites and viruses, and refers to the latest published research on current findings.

Colony Collapse Disorder Update (pdf)

 


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