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June 16, 2008 Volume 17 No. 13 Update on Pest Management and Crop Development
 

 

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Upcoming Events

Current DD accumulations

43F

50F

(Geneva 1/1-6/16):

1110

690

(Geneva 1/1-6/16/2007):

1062

662

(Geneva "Normal"):

1058

632

(Geneva 1/1-6/23 Predicted):

1225

753

(Highland 3/1-6/16/08):

1261

809

 

Coming Events:
(Normal +/- Std Dev):

Lesser appleworm 1st flight subsides

974-1482

589-949

Obliquebanded leafroller 1st flight peak

904-1322

538-834

Obliquebanded leafroller summer larvae hatch

1038-1460

625-957

Oriental fruit moth 1st flight subsides

827-1269

484-804

Pandemis leafroller flight peak

863-1167

491-707

Pear psylla summer 2nd brood eggs hatch

967-1185

584-750

San Jose scale 1st flight subsides

850-1202

507-741

San Jose scale 1st generation crawlers present

1033-1215

619-757

Spotted tentiform leafminer 1st flight subsides

663-943

360-566

Spotted tentiform leafminer 2nd flight begins

958-1188

564-742

Pest Focus

Geneva:

1st Peachtree Borer trap catch 6/12.

 

1st Dogwood Borer trap catch 6/13 (Wayne Co.)

Highland:

As of Saturday, 14 June, the predicted first hatch of obliquebanded

 

leafroller for sites throughout the Hudson Valley are (per Skybit):

 

Warwick - 16 June

 

Campbell Hall - 16 June

 

Milton - 17 June

 

Highland - 18 June

 

Red Hook - 21 June

 

Valatia - 21 June

 

Altamont - 22 June

 

Trap Catches

Geneva

6/5

6/9

6/12

6/16

Redbanded Leafroller

0.2

0.3

0.0

0.1

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

0.8

0.8

0.3

0.4

Oriental Fruit Moth

0.0

0.3

0.2

0.0

American Plum Borer

0.0

0.4

0.2

0.5

Lesser Peachtree Borer

0.8

0.0

0.0

0.4

Lesser Appleworm

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.1

San Jose Scale

6.2

3.3

3.7

1.1

Codling Moth

0.2

0.1

0.3

0.0

Pandemis Leafroller

0.0

0.5*

0.7

0.1

Obliquebanded Leafroller

0.0

0.8*

0.5

0.1

Peachtree Borer

-

0.0

0.3*

0.1

 

 

 

 

 

Highland (Peter Jentsch)

5/26

6/2

6/9

6/16

Redbanded Leafroller

0.4

0.1

0.0

0.0

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

3.0

0.0

1.1

20.7

Oriental Fruit Moth

0.6

0.1

0.0

0.1

Codling Moth

2.4

2.7

1.4

0.2

Lesser Appleworm

0.6

0.6

0.8

0.6

Obliquebanded Leafroller

-

0.0

0.6

1.4

 

* = 1st catch

Insects
D-
DAYS

ORCHARD RADAR DIGEST

Geneva Predictions:
Roundheaded Appletree Borer & Dogwood Borer
Peak egglaying period roughly: June 23 to July 8.
First RAB eggs hatch roughly: June 22.
First Dogwood Borer egg hatch roughly: June 25.

Codling Moth
Codling moth development as of June 16: 1st generation adult emergence at 77% and 1st generation egg hatch at 25%.
1st generation 3% CM egg hatch: June 10 (= target date for first spray where multiple sprays needed to control 1st generation CM).
1st generation 20% CM egg hatch: June 15 (= target date where one spray needed to control 1st generation codling moth).

Obliquebanded Leafroller
Where waiting to sample late instar OBLR larvae is not an option (= where OBLR is known to be a problem and will be managed with insecticide against young larvae): Early egg hatch and optimum date for initial application of B.t., Intrepid, Proclaim, SpinTor or other insecticide with comparable efficacy against OBLR (with follow-up applications as needed): June 24.

San Jose Scale
1st generation SJS crawlers appear: June 15.

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
2nd STLM flight begins around: June 13.



 

MODEL BUILDING

Codling Moth (targeted spray application at newly hatching larvae, predicted at 250-360 DD base 50°F after biofix):

Location

 

Biofix

 

DD (as of 6/16)

Albion (Orleans Co.)

 

May 20

 

404

Appleton-S (Niagara Co.)

 

May 28

 

337

Clifton Park

 

May 17

 

400

Clintondale

 

May 11

 

413

Geneva

 

May 12

 

435

Knowlesville (Orleans Co.)

 

May 28

 

350

Red Hook (Dutchess Co.)

 

May 14

 

563

Sodus (high-pressure site)

 

May 14

 

416

Waterport (Orleans Co.)

 

May 20

 

433

Williamson

 

May 12

 

440

Plum Curculio (spray coverage required until 308 DD base 50°F after biofix; i.e., McIntosh petal fall):

Location  

Biofix

 

DD (as of 6/16)

Albion (Orleans Co.)

 

May 16

 

421

Appleton-S (Niagara Co.)

 

May 23

 

382

Geneva

 

May 14

 

423

Knowlesville (Orleans Co.)

 

May 16

 

415

Sodus

 

May 16

 

405

Williamson

 

May 21

 

402

Obliquebanded Leafroller (targeted spray application at newly hatching larvae, predicted at 360 DD base 43°F after biofix):

Location  

Biofix

 

DD (as of 6/16)

Highland

 

June 6

 

331

Clifton Park

 

June 11

 

103

Albion

 

June 10 (est'd.)

 

162

Sodus

 

June 12

 

115

Geneva

 

June 9

 

179

Ithaca

 

June 9 (est'd.)

 

221

[NOTE: Consult our mini expert system for arthropod pest management, the
Apple Pest Degree Day Calculator:
http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ipm/specware/newa/appledd.php
Find accumulated degree days between dates with the
Degree Day Calculator:
http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ipm/specware/newa/
Powered by the NYS IPM Program’s NEWA weather data and the Baskerville-Emin formula]


TIME SCALE

YOU'VE GOT SCALE!
(Dick Straub, Harvey Reissig & Peter Jentsch, Entomology, Highland & Geneva)

    As we find ourselves within one of the historical treatment periods for San Jose scale (SJS), we thought it would be a good idea to reprint this slightly updated 2005 article on management options:

   According to grower reports, this pest is again gaining ground in many orchards throughout the state.  San Jose scale can seriously affect fruit quality and, if unmanaged for a number of seasons, can result in poor tree health, or even death.  We are fortunate to have a list of efficacious treatments that can be employed at various windows during the season (see Table 1).  In the universal language of spraying apples, however, good coverage is necessary for control of scale.

Table 1. Treatment periods and insecticide choices for management of SJS

Period   Treatment Choices
1 - Green tip

 

3% oil

 

 

 

2 - Half-inch green

 

Either: 2% oil

 

 

Lorsban 4E (16 oz/100 gal)

 

 

Lorsban + oil

 

 

Supracide 2E (2 pt/100 gal; 3-12 pt/A)

 

 

Supracide 2E + oil

 

     

 

3 - 1st summer brood (crawlers)

 

Either: Esteem (4-5 oz/A) + oil (2%)

 

 

Assail (8 oz/A) + oil (2%)         

 

 

Provado 1.6F (2 fl oz/100; 8 fl oz/A) + oil (2%)   

 

 

[Apply at 500 DD from 1 March + again 14d later]

 

 

 

4 - 2nd summer brood (crawlers)

 

[Same options as for 1st brood crawlers:

 

 

Apply at 1451 DD from 1 March + again 14d later]

   Treatment periods 1 and 2 (green-tip and half-inch green). Oil, Lorsban and Supracide directed against overwintered 'black caps' are long-time standards, and each still has a place in control programs.  Treatment during one or both of these time periods represents a first line of defense against scale.  In most instances, applications at both green tip and half-inch green are probably unnecessary, but at this busy and often inclement time of season, an option should be welcome.  Oil + Lorsban tank-mixed of course is a traditional treatment.  Historical evidence, and results by Reissig & Combs (2003) suggest that there is not much synergism in the combination; i.e., either oil alone or Lorsban alone perform just as well.  Many growers favor the combination, however, believing that it increases the efficacy against overwintered OBLR larvae - this is probably true.

   Treatment periods 3 and 4 (crawlers of the 1st and 2nd generations).  A bit more recent on the scene are Provado, Esteem and Assail.  Quite frankly, we have little experience with Provado against this pest, but it may be worth a try if other susceptible insect species are present during recommended treatment periods.  Esteem is an insect growth regulator that functions as a juvenile hormone mimic and thereby inhibits metamorphosis from one stage to another.  It is most effective when directed against crawlers — preferably at first appearance.  Esteem has no contact toxicity and tends to act slowly.  Assail is a new-generation broad-spectrum neonicotinoid that, somewhat similar to Esteem, is most effective when directed against crawlers at first appearance.  Efficacy of both materials is improved by the addition of oil, but ensure that such an application does not correspond with sulfur-containing fungicides such as captan.

    Treatments to be applied at the first appearance of summer brood crawlers are best timed by the use of a degree-day model (1st generation, 500 DD50 from 1 March; 2nd generation, 1451 DD50 from 1 March).  Because each generation of crawlers is produced (NOTE: SJS females do not lay eggs, but rather give birth to live young) for extended periods of time, for complete control a second application 14 days later is advised.  Real-time degree-day accumulations for specific sites throughout New York are available from the NEWA website (http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ipm/specware/newa/), or other local sources.  Correct timing of treatments is critical with Esteem and Assail, and calendar dates are generally too imprecise to be of benefit.  For example, Table 2 shows that on average, 1st appearance of crawlers occurs approximately 21 days after petal fall.  Also evident, however, is the extreme variation, i.e., the 500 DD event at the Hudson Valley Lab during the last decade has occurred at intervals between 4 May and 19 May.

Reference
Reissig, W. H. and D. Combs. 2003. A why, what and when approach to San Jose scale. Proceedings 79th Cumberland-Shenandoah Fruit Workers Conf., Winchester, VA.

Table 2. Historical record of calendar dates and corresponding degree-day accumulations to the treatment period (500 DD) for 1st generation summer brood crawlers of San Jose scale. Cornell's Hudson Valley Lab, Highland, NY.

Year  Date DD 50
Petal Fall of
McIntosh 
Days post &
cover period
2004    

23 May   

495.4   

13 May

10

1C

2003

6 June

508.6

19 May

19

1C-2C

2002

31 May

508.0

7 May

24

2C

2001

29 May

499.3

10 May

19

1C-2C

2000

31 May

498.8

8 May

23

2C

1999

1 June

513.2

13 May

19

1C-2C

1998

21 May

505.1

4 May

17

1C-2C

1997

12 June

508.0

14 May

31

2C-3C

1994

1 June

495.5

12 May

20

1C-2C

                Avg. = 503.5

11 May

20.2 +/- 5.5 days


BAAAAAH!

IN SHEEP'S CLOTHING
(Art Agnello, Entomology, Geneva)

woolly apple aphids   Jim Eve reports that infestations of woolly apple aphid (WAA) are once again starting to show up in problem sites in western NY.  WAA colonizes both aboveground parts of the apple tree and the roots and commonly overwinters on the roots.  In the spring, nymphs crawl up on apple trees from the roots to initiate aerial colonies.  Most nymphs are born alive to unmated females on apple trees during the summer.  Colonies initially build up on the inside of the canopy on sites such as wounds or pruning scars and later become numerous in the outer portion of the tree canopy, usually during late July to early August.

   Aerial colonies occur most frequently on succulent tissue such as the current season's growth, water sprouts, unhealed pruning wounds, or cankers.  Heavy infestations cause honeydew and sooty mold on the fruit and galls on the plant parts.  Severe root infestations can stunt or kill young trees but usually do not damage mature trees.  Large numbers of colonies on trees may leave sooty mold on the fruit, which annoys pickers because red sticky residues from crushed WAA colonies may accumulate on their hands and clothing.

woolly apple aphid    During late June most years (and arguably earlier in years like this one), water sprouts, pruning wounds, and scars on the inside of the tree canopy should be examined for WAA nymphs.  During mid-July, new growth around the outside of the canopy should be examined for WAA colonies.  No economic threshold has been determined for treatment of WAA, but they are difficult to control, so the occurrence of any colonies should prompt the consideration of some remedial action.

   WAA is difficult to control with insecticides because of its waxy outer covering and tendency to form dense colonies that are impenetrable to sprays.  WAA is resistant to the commonly used organophosphates, but other insecticides are effective against WAA, including Diazinon and Thionex, and some newer products such as Assail (plus 1 qt. of oil per 100 gal) offer some suppression.  Good coverage to soak through the insects' woolly coverings is integral to ensuring maximum efficacy.   Additionally, Lorsban trunk applications for borers made at this time will effectively control any crawlers that might be contacted by these sprays.


Chem News

LIKE
A
ROCK

STONE FRUITS ADDED TO NYS ASSAIL LABEL
(Art Agnello, Entomology, Geneva)

    The NYS DEC has approved a supplemental label for use of Assail 30SG Insecticide (EPA Reg. No. 8033-36-82695) on additional crops in NY, including stone fruits: apricot, cherry, nectarine, peach, plum, plumcot and prune.  Assail is labeled for use against aphids, leafhoppers (2.5-5.3 oz/A); oriental fruit moth, plum curculio and cat-facing insects such as tarnished plant bug and stinkbug (5.3-8.0 oz/A); cherry and black cherry fruit flies (5.3-8.0 oz/A); and San Jose scale, Japanese beetle and rose chafer (5.3-8.0 oz/A).  The use of spray adjuvants, such as silicone-based surfactants or horticultural oils, may enhance coverage and improve pest control.  The PHI for Assail on these croops is 7 days.  Copies of both the supplemental label and the federal label must be in the possession of the user at the time of application.

 

 


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