Cornell University InsigniaCornell University New York State Agricultural Experiment Station
 

 
Scaffolds Logo

July 7, 2008 Volume 17 No. 16 Update on Pest Management and Crop Development
 

 

Scaffolds Logo

 

Upcoming Events

Current DD accumulations

43F

50F

(Geneva 1/1-7/7):

1582

1005

(Geneva 1/1-7/7/2007):

1572

1015

(Geneva "Normal"):

1604

1020

(Geneva 1/1-7/14 Predicted):

1817

1191

 

Coming Events:
(Normal +/- Std Dev):

American plum borer 2nd flight begins

1409-1967

1006-1294

Codling moth 2nd flight begins

1555-2283

999-1529

Lesser appleworm 2nd flight begins

1405-2023

917-1337

Obliquebanded leafroller 1st flight subsides

1621-2121

1040-1426

Oriental fruit moth 2nd flight peak

1387-2137

874-1452

Pandemis leafroller flight subsides

1390-1636

866-1046

Spotted tentiform leafminer 2nd flight peak

1388-1838

869-1215

STLM 2nd gen. tissue feeders present

1378-2035

913-1182

Redbanded leafroller 2nd flight peak

1545-2069

983-1389

San Jose scale 2nd flight begins

1575-1933

1020-1302

Apple maggot 1st oviposition punctures

1528-2078

1021-1495

Trap Catches

Geneva

6/26

6/30

7/3

Redbanded Leafroller

0.3

2.5*

3.2

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

19.7

12.6

11.2

Oriental Fruit Moth

0.2

1.1*

2.5

American Plum Borer

0.0

0.0

0.0

Lesser Peachtree Borer

0.2

0.3

0.3

Lesser Appleworm

0.0

0.0

0.3

San Jose Scale

0.3

0.0

0.1

Codling Moth

0.2

0.0

0.0

Pandemis Leafroller

0.0

0.3

0.0

Obliquebanded Leafroller

0.0

0.0

0.3

Peachtree Borer

1.0

0.1

0.0

Apple Maggot

0.0

0.3*

1.2

 

 

 

 

Highland (Peter Jentsch)

6/16

6/21

6/30

Redbanded Leafroller

0.0

0.6

0.6

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer  

20.7

38.1

41.4

Oriental Fruit Moth

0.1

0.0

0.9

Codling Moth

0.2

1.1

0.3

Lesser Appleworm

0.6

6.3

2.2

Obliquebanded Leafroller

1.4

7.4

0.9

Tufted Apple Budmoth

-

0.6

0.3

Fruittree Leafroller

-

0.3

0.1

Apple Maggot

-

0.0

0.1

Lesser Peachtree Borer

-

0.5

1.1

Dogwood Borer

-

0.3

0.1

 

* = 1st catch

Insects
ETA

ORCHARD RADAR DIGEST

Geneva Predictions:
Roundheaded Appletree Borer & Dogwood Borer
RAB peak egglaying period roughly: June 24 to July 8.
Peak RAB eggs hatch roughly: July 9 to July 28.

Codling Moth
Codling moth development as of July 7: 1st generation adult emergence at 100%
and 1st generation egg hatch at 91%.

Lesser Appleworm
2nd LAW flight begins around: July 7.

Obliquebanded Leafroller
Where waiting to sample late instar OBLR larvae to determine need for treatment is an option, or to check on results from earlier sprays:
If first OBLR late instar larvae sample is below threshold, date for confirmation follow-up: July 7.

Oriental Fruit Moth
2nd generation – first treatment date, if needed: July 6.
2nd generation – second treatment date, if needed: July 16.

Redbanded Leafroller
Peak catch and approximate start of egg hatch: July 9.

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
Optimum first sample date for 2nd generation STLM sap-feeding mines: July 10.



 

MODEL BUILDING

Obliquebanded Leafroller (% estimated egg hatch in DD base 43°F after biofix: 50% hatch - 630 DD; "halfway point" in development of earliest emerging larvae – 720 DD):

Location

 

Biofix

 

DD (as of 7/7)

Albion

 

June 7

 

833

Appleton-S

 

June 10

 

697

Clifton Park

 

June 11

 

641

Geneva

 

June 9

 

735

Knowlesville

 

June 8

 

775

Sodus

 

June 10

 

647

Waterport

 

June 10

 

743

Williamson

 

June 10

 

678

Oriental Fruit Moth (First treatment targeting earliest egg hatch of 2nd generation larvae between 175-200 DD base 45°F after biofix):

Location  

Biofix

 

DD (as of 7/7)

Albion

 

July 1

 

160

Geneva

 

June 30

 

176

Sodus (South)

 

June 30

 

153

Waterport

 

July 1

 

164

Williamson

 

June 30

 

175

      

[NOTE: Consult our mini expert system for arthropod pest management, the
Apple Pest Degree Day Calculator:
http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ipm/specware/newa/appledd.php
Find accumulated degree days between dates with the
Degree Day Calculator:
http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ipm/specware/newa/
Powered by the NYS IPM Program’s NEWA weather data and the Baskerville-Emin formula]

 


PEST ASIDE

PERFORMANCE-ENHANCING BUGS
(Art Agnello, Entomology, Geneva)

       There are many insects present in apple orchards that provide a benefit to growers by feeding on pest species.  It is important that growers and orchard managers be able to recognize these natural enemies, so that they are not mistaken for pests.  The best way to conserve beneficial insects is to spray only when necessary, and to use materials that are less toxic to them (see Tables 5 & 12, pp. 58 and 64 of the Recommends).  This brief review, taken from IPM Tree-Fruit Fact Sheet No. 18 (available online at: http://www.nysipm.cornell.edu/factsheets/treefruit/pests/ben/ben.asp), covers the major beneficial insects that are likely to be seen in N.Y. orchards, concentrating on the most commonly seen life stages.  Factsheet No. 23, "Predatory Mites" (online: http://www.nysipm.cornell.edu/factsheets/treefruit/pests/pm/pm.asp), reviews mites that are important predators of leaf-feeding mites.

CECIDOMYIID LARVAE (Aphidoletes aphidimyza)
       These gall midge flies (Family Cecidomyiidae) are aphid predators, and overwinter as larvae or pupae in a cocoon.  Adults emerge from this cocoon, mate, and females lay eggs among aphid colonies.  The adults are delicate, resembling mosquitoes, and are not likely to be seen.  The eggs are very small (about 0.3 mm or 1/85 in. long) and orange.  They hatch into small, brightly colored, orange larvae that can be found eating aphids on the leaf surface.  These predacious larvae are present from mid-June throughout the summer.  There are 3–6 generations per year.  In addition to aphids, they also feed on soft-bodied scales and mealybugs.

SYRPHID FLY LARVAE (Family Syrphidae)
       The Family Syrphidae contains the "hover flies", so named because of the adults' flying behavior.  They are brightly colored with yellow and black stripes, resembling bees.  Syrphids overwinter as pupae in the soil.  In the spring, the adults emerge, mate, and lay single, long whitish eggs on foliage or bark, from early spring through midsummer, usually among aphid colonies.  One female lays several eggs.  After hatching, the larvae feed on aphids by piercing their bodies and sucking the fluids, leaving shriveled, blackened aphid cadavers.  These predacious larvae are shaped cylindrically and taper toward the head.  There are 5–7 generations per year.  Syrphid larvae feed on aphids, and may also feed on scales and caterpillars.

LADYBIRD BEETLES (Family Coccinellidae)
       • Stethorus punctum: This ladybird beetle is an important predator of European red mite in parts of the northeast, particularly in Pennsylvania, and has been observed intermittently in the Hudson Valley of N.Y., and occasionally in western N.Y.  Stethorus overwinters as an adult in the "litter" and ground cover under trees, or in nearby protected places.  The adults are rounded, oval, uniformly shiny black, and are about 1.3–1.5 mm (1/16 in.) long.  Eggs are laid mostly on the undersides of the leaves, near the primary veins, at a density of 1–10 per leaf.  They are small and pale white, and about 0.3–0.4 mm (1/85 in.) long.  Eggs turn black just prior to hatching.  The larva is gray to blackish with numerous hairs, but becomes reddish as it matures, starting on the edges and completing the change just prior to pupation.  There are 3 generations per year in south-central Pennsylvania, with peak periods of larval activity in mid-May, mid-June and mid-August.  The pupa is uniformly black, small and flattened, and is attached to the leaf.

       • Other Ladybird Beetles: Ladybird beetles are very efficient predators of aphids, scales and mites.  Adults are generally hemisphere-shaped, and brightly colored or black, ranging in size from 0.8 to over 8 mm (0.03–0.3 in.).  They overwinter in sheltered places and become active in the spring.  Eggs are laid on the undersides of leaves, usually near aphid colonies, and are typically yellow, spindle-shaped, and stand on end.  Females may lay hundreds of eggs.  The larvae have well-developed legs and resemble miniature alligators, and are brightly colored, usually black with yellow.  The pupal case can often be seen attached to a leaf or branch.  There are usually 1–2 generations per year.  One notable species that is evident now is Coccinella septempunctata, the sevenspotted lady beetle, often referred to as C-7.  This insect, which is large and reddish-orange with seven distinct black spots, was intentionally released into N.Y. state beginning in 1977, and has become established as an efficient predator in most parts of the state.

LACEWINGS (Family Chrysopidae)
       Adult lacewings are green or brown insects with net-like, delicate wings, long antennae, and prominent eyes.  The larvae are narrowly oval with two sickle-shaped mouthparts, which are used to pierce the prey and extract fluids.  Often the larvae are covered with "trash", which is actually the bodies of their prey and other debris.  Lacewings overwinter as larvae in cocoons, inside bark cracks or in leaves on the ground.  In the spring, adults become active and lay eggs on the trunks and branches.  These whitish eggs are laid singly and can be seen connected to the leaf by a long, threadlike "stem".  Lacewings feed on aphids, leafhoppers, scales, mites, and eggs of Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths).

TRUE BUGS (Order Hemiptera)
       There are many species of "true bugs" (Order Hemiptera) such as tarnished plant bug, that feed on plants, but a number of them are also predators of pest species.  The ones most likely to be seen are "assassin bugs" or reduviids (Family Reduviidae), and "damsel bugs" or nabids (Family Nabidae).  These types of predators typically have front legs that are efficient at grasping and holding their prey.

PARASITOIDS
       Parasitoids are insects that feed on or in the tissue of other insects, consuming all or most of their host and eventually killing it.  They are typically small wasps (Order Hymenoptera; e.g., families Ichneumonidae, Braconidae, Chalcididae), or flies (Order Diptera; e.g., family Tachinidae).  Although the adult flies or wasps may be seen occasionally in an orchard, it is much more common to observe the eggs, larvae, or pupae in or on the parasitized pest insect.  Eggs may be laid directly on a host such as the obliquebanded leafroller, or near the host, such as in the mine of a spotted tentiform leafminer.  After the parasitoid consumes the pest, it is not unusual to find the parasitized larvae or eggs of a moth host, or aphids that have been parastized ("mummies").  Exit holes can be seen where the parasitoid adult has emerged from the aphid mummy.

GENERALIST PREDATORS
       There is a diversity of other beneficial species to be found in apple orchards, most of which are rarely seen, but whose feeding habits make them valuable additions to any crop system.  The use of more selective pesticides helps to maintain their numbers and contributes to the level of natural control attainable in commercial fruit plantings.  Among these beneficials are:
       • Spiders (Order Araneida): All spiders are predaceous and feed mainly on insects.  The prey is usually killed by the poison injected into it by the spider's bite.  Different spiders capture their prey in different ways; crab spiders (Thomisidae and Philodromidae) and jumping spiders (Salticidae) forage for and pounce on their prey -- the crab spiders lie in wait for their prey on flowers -- and web-building spiders (e.g., Araneidae, Theridiidae, and Dictynidae) capture their prey in nets or webs.
       • Ants (Family Formicidae): The feeding habits of ants are rather varied.  Some are carnivorous, feeding on other animals or insects (living or dead), some feed on plants, some on fungi, and many feed on sap, nectar, honeydew, and similar substances.  Research done in Washington has shown certain species (Formica spp.) of ants to be effective predators of pear psylla.
       • Earwigs (Family Forficulidae): Although these insects may sometimes attack fruit and vegetable crops, those found in apple orchards are probably more likely to be scavengers that feed on a variety of small insects.



space